According to National Geographic, scientists have sequenced the genome factor of the chimpanzee and found that humans are 98.5% similar to the ape species. The chimpanzee is our closest relative in the animal kingdom; however, some people are not aware of our resembling traits with chimpanzees. Jane Goodall’s, In the Shadow of Man, describes some similar traits humans and chimpanzees have such as their facial expressions and emotions, use of tools, and diet.
Humans evolve from apelike ancestors approximately five million years ago. Most closely related to us are our non-human primates such as African great apes, chimpanzees and gorillas. Scientific studies reveal that more similar traits are being share by human and our non-human primates compared to other animals. As human evolve from our apelike ancestors, changes in our DNA differentiate ourselves from our non-human primate. Even though we evolve from our non-human ancestors and share similar anatomical structures and characteristics, we are unique in our own ways. We possess specific qualities and abilities that differ from other species. There is a substantial gap between non-human primate and fully developed human. Here we will discuss
Nonhuman primates are social and affiliative animals and strong social bonds are fundamental to their lives. The same can be said for humankind. About five million years ago, chimps and humans were part of the same homididite family. Today, humans are still classified as primates. Humans share many behaviors that are similar to that of their nonhuman primate relatives. The two are very closely related and share so much DNA, over 98%. Since they are so closely related, it is a valid idea that nonhuman primates may be living in a similar way today to that of our ancestors of the past. The diets and habitats of nonhuman primates are similar to those of human predecessors. Humans and nonhuman
Thus, I was able to observe some similarities among these species. The way the female chimp used tools, and her fingers to grab food, how she used to be on her feet, freeing her hands, groom her child, educate her offspring, sleep with him while snuggling, use a lot of face emotions to convey a message to an individual; she smiled at her baby, laughed when playing, and tickling him, remind me of human. She also has a flat pink face, hands’ palm, and feet sole as humans do. Furthermore, the gorilla was also really human when he protected his eyes from the intense sunrays, following the movement of the sun, and sat in the shade, mated with a female, scratched his head, and bottom, and put his finger in his nose. I think that these humans’ pattern appeared for similar reasons as in the Primates. For instance, when the gorilla scratches his bottom, it is because the area is itchy, and he wants to remove what is indisposing him. In addition, the mother chimp educates her kid to transmit knowledge throughout generation, which is the same for humans, who go to school.
“In their natural homes in the wild, chimpanzees humans’ closest living genetic relatives”, who are more like us than they’re like gorillas are never separated from their families and troops . “Profoundly social beings, they spend every day together exploring, crafting and using tools to solve problems, foraging, playing, grooming each other, and making soft nests for sleeping each night” . They care deeply for their families and forge lifelong friendships . Chimpanzee mothers are loving and protective, nursing their infants and sharing their nests with them for four to six years . They have excellent memories and share cultural traditions with their children and peers . They empathize with one another and console their friends when they’re upset . They help others, even at a personal cost to themselves . When one of another
Throughout the term, reading the book, “Through a Window” by Jane Goodall has been quite intriguing for me, in that it has inspired me with new ideas and perceptions about how our own species has evolved over time. I have really enjoyed seeing the many similarities that hominids share with other primate species, especially chimpanzees. Goodall’s research only further proves that we are not only extremely biologically similar to chimpanzees in our DNA, but have many behavioral similarities as well. The film, “Monkey in the Mirror” also shows support for our likeness in intellectuality. These documented findings on chimpanzee and human resemblances provides the strong evidence needed to conclude the fact that humans do indeed share a common ancestor with great apes.
Humans and other primates both communicate using many different vocal sounds, though humans have broad and detailed languages. All primates are very vocal animals, though other forms of communication are often used. Humans have a complex language of hand signals (sign language) that is used. Through studies it has been found that other primates use their
In the book “Through a Window” by Jane Goodall, Goodall tells the reader about her experience when studying chimpanzees in Gombe for thirty years. Goodall explains how chimpanzees and humans are very much alike, not only in DNA structure but also in social behavior, intelligent ability, and emotions. Goodall talks about these similarities throughout the book. Chimpanzees can use tools, have social organization, have a way to communicate, a similar diet, and locomotion all of which show how humans and chimpanzees are more closely related then what was originally thought.
Like human beings, animals also communicate among themselves through gestures and body movements. Monkeys always carry their
“Chimpanzees have been found to extensively and flexibly use gestural communication, even developing novel gestures in new situations” (Larsen, 210). They show different communicative responses specific to their groups and regions. This indicates that vocal features can be transmitted through social learning. Chimpanzee mothers and infants communicate through distinct vocalizations and gestures (Hirata, 2009). In 2008, Hirata observed several interactions between mothers and infants in captivity. When infants were still young and immature, mothers would help their infants move. When the mothers walked long distances in situations that their young would have trouble traveling alone, the mother would communicate with her infant and they would travel together with the mother carrying the infant. For example, before even traveling one mother stretched out her hand toward her offspring who was somewhat far from her. The infant then approached its mother to take her hand and the mother cradled the infant and moved from one spot to another while carrying her infant. Hirata indicated that mothers will determine the goal of travel in advance and proceed by carrying their young if it is necessary. This is done through communication in advance using several types of gestures and vocals. The range of gestural communication is greater compared to facial and vocal signals.
The cultural transmission of a communication system through learning is a fundamental attribute of language. Trained chimpanzee’s Washoe and Lucy have tried to teach Ameslan to other animals, including their own offspring. Washoe has taught gestures to other chimps at the institute where she is, including her son, Sequoia, who died when he was very young. There has been other cases of cultural transmission from chimp to chimp.
Language is a form of communication and can be portrayed in many different ways not just vocalization, this is shown by those that use sign language rather than vocalization; these humans still have complex language but they lack the necessary organs or capabilities to produce all of the sounds needed for vocal language; similarly, some non-human primates use different interactions as language not just production and combinations of sounds. Non-human primates do not have the ability to vocalize the way humans do because they lack vocal cords, control of the necessary vocalization, and other speech organs, but that does not mean that they cannot effectively communicate through language with other non-human primates or with humans as well.
Katherine Pollard, a biostatisician at Gladstone Institutes at University of California, San Francisco has worked to identify DNA sequences that set the human genome apart from chimpanzees since 2003. She wrote a computer program to identify the DNA sequences that differ between humans and chimpanzees. Pollard explains the “ticking of the molecular clock” rate of change in genetic mutation by saying that “…those parts of the code that have undergone the most modification since the chimp-human split are the sequences that most likely shaped humankind.” In November of 2004, after months of work developing a computer program that would sift through 2,000 plus DNA letters per second, Pollard finally had her list of rapidly evolving DNA sequences.
Most primates communicate through a lot of ways, one of them being vocalization. Vocalization in primates have a range of functions, but some vary in contexts. For example, vocalization between one primate and another primate can differ greatly from communication between one group and another group. Of all primates, the only species to have developed speech are humans. Another form of communication is the use of symbols and hand gestures. Although apes use symbols, this provides insight on their cognitive abilities. In particular, there have been various recent studies on nonhuman primates and how they show a high level of complexity in linguistics, which is similar to humans. We study primate communication and their behavior to get a better
Since the language-trained apes only seemed to press the buttons to receive an award, it shows that the apes don’t have a real need to communicate with us or learn our language. There is probably no evolutionary pressure for us to communicate with each