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Pathophysiology Of Diabetic Neuropathy And Diabetes

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Pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy
Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects blood glucose levels. Diabetes is the loss of pancreatic metabolic activity that is responsible for the use of energy, which comes from glucose that an individual consumes. There are two types of diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes is the failure of pancreas to secrete a hormone called insulin; responsible for the removal of glucose from the body to be used in the muscles for energy. Type 2 Diabetes is the failure of using the insulin that is secreted form the pancreas.

Individuals with controlled blood sugar levels due to normal functioning of the endocrine system, avoid several complications. However, a high percentage of individuals suffering from diabetes also consequently suffer from hyperglycemia. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to many serious cardiovascular diseases in the body like retinopathy, nephropathy and mainly neuropathy (Kumar et al., 2007), but the neuropathy severity is determined by the duration and intensity of uncontrolled blood sugar levels (Tesfaye et al., 2005). About 50-60 % of diabetic patients suffer from diabetic neuropathy, and it generates from having constant hyperglycemia leading to nerve damage in the body, mainly the extremities starting from the legs and feet (Kumar et al., 2007). Patients describe the symptoms as ‘numbness’, ‘pins and needles’, burning, tingling and weakness of the muscles (Dejgaard, 1998). Severe cases leads to amputation of the limbs (Kumar et
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