Glucose is a simple sugar found in food that provides energy to the cells in the body. More complex sugars are broken down in the small intestine and the glucose released is then absorbed into the bloodstream, whereby is it distributed throughout the body. However, glucose needs insulin to enter the cells. Without insulin, the cells become deprived of energy despite the presence of abundant glucose in the blood, and some of the abundant, unused glucose is wasted in the urine. These sustained high blood glucose levels disrupt homeostasis in the body and produce a series of metabolic problems that affect multiple organ systems (Alemzadeh and Ali, 2011). In the following sections I will discuss in detail the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and the ways to diagnose, treat and manage this pervasive disease.
In order for our bodies to function effectively, there is a series of events that occur at the biological and chemical level in our bodies. These events enable the human body to withstand various stresses that may be imposed on our bodies. These “events” that occur are more specifically known as the process of homeostasis. In this essay I will be discussing the process of homeostasis and how homeostasis works. Furthermore, I am discussing thermoregulation, osmoregulation, sugar regulation, and negative feedback which are all components of homeostasis.
Homeostasis is the process of maintaining a fairly constant interval environment. Homeostatic mechanisms help us to be independent of our external environment. It helps us regulate our body temperature, pH, concentration of dissolved substance in the body fluids, concentration of glucose in blood, concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood and body fluids, blood pressure and concentration of metabolic wastes. Without it, we wouldn’t be able to survive and adapt to our environment.
This ensures that the blood glucose levels are maintained so that the glucose levels don’t fluctuate significantly. As a result of out of control blood glucose, it can lead to serious short term problems such as Hypoglycemia, Hyperglycemia, or Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. However long term effects of uncontrolled blood glucose can cause the blood vessels that supply blood to important organs such as the heart, eyes and nerves to become damaged. Homeostasis refers to the physiological state of the body despite fluctuations that occur in the external environment. It requires coordination of the Hormonal Regulatory System and Nervous System, which are constantly adjusted in response to changes in external and internal environments. Blood glucose homeostasis allows energy to be available to the cells whenever it is needed. The liver also has a role in the carbohydrate conversions. We use the homeostatic negative feedback system to stop the secretion of the peptide hormones insulin and
The body must keep a healthy blood glucose level so that there is a continuous supply of energy to the cells. If the blood sugar levels fall too low (hypoglycaemia) it can cause harmful complications such as fatigue and even loss of consciousness. If blood sugar levels raise too high (hyperglycaemia) it can lead to many difficulties such as cardiovascular disease, nerve damage and kidney damage (S Preet, 2013). This is why is important for the body to regulate its glucose levels. It does this by the pancreatic islets detecting a change in blood glucose levels, they then release the hormone insulin into the blood stream. Muscle cells are prompted by the insulin, to absorb glucose. The way insulin does this is by binding itself to receptors on the cell membrane, thuds increasing the amount of transporters and allowing more glucose to be transported into the cells. If glucose levels fall then another hormone is released by the pancreas called glucagon. Glucagon allows stored glucose (glycogen) to be released from the liver into the blood stream and raises blood glucose levels (Amis, 2011). This process of keeping blood glucose levels constant is an example of ‘homoeostatic control’ where the rise and fall of glucose levels allows each different hormone to be used in a constant
The body regulates the blood glucose levels by producing insulin. Insulin is a chemical messenger essential for the entry of glucose into a cell. When the pancreas fails to produce insulin that is sufficient to use, the level of glucose in the blood will remain high. If to much insulin is produced, or given through medication, the level of glucose in the blood will remain low. In type 2 diabetes the cells become resistant to insulin and ignore its message to be absorbed into the cells, this is known as insulin resistance. Insulin deficit results in decreased transportation of glucose from cells in the body, hyperglycemia then arises causing to much glucose to be present in the bloodstream (Gould and Dyer, 2011: 550). The pancreas is located
Diabetes type 2 is a condition in which blood sugar levels are too high. After eating foods that contain carbohydrates, chemicals in the small intestine break down the carbohydrates into simple sugar molecules called glucose. The cell lining in the small intestine absorb the glucose, which then passes into the bloodstream. When the blood reaches the pancreas, beta cells inside the pancreas detect the rising glucose levels. To reduce the glucose level, beta cells release insulin into the bloodstream. As the blood circulates through the body, the insulin and glucose exit the bloodstream into tissue to reach the body’s cells. Most cells of the body have certain receptors on their surface that bind to the circulating insulin. Insulin acts like a key in a lick to open up the cell so that the circulating glucose can get inside the cell. The cell can use the glucose to produce the energy it needs to function properly. If a person has insulin resistance, insulin cannot unlock the cells to let glucose in because the locks, called receptors, are abnormal and/or missing. As a result, glucose is locked out of the cells. The amount of glucose builds up in the bloodstream in a condition called hyperglycemia. To compensate for hyperglycemia, the pancreas produces more and more insulin. Overworked beta cells try to keep with the demand, but gradually lose their ability to produce enough insulin.
Normally the level of glucose in the body rises after a person eats a meal. This rise in blood glucose stimulates the beta cells to release insulin. Insulin then either helps body cells take up glucose to use as energy or promotes the conversation of glucose to fat, which are used by the cells later. Some glucose maybe stored in the liver this is called glycogen. Then the level of glucose drops (usually several hours after the meal has been eaten), other cells in the pancreas stimulate the conversion of glycogen to glucose and its release into the bloodstream. In this way, the level of glucose in the bloodstream stays relatively constant until the next meal is eaten.
When your body is found to have too much glucose in it, your body isn’t making enough insulin or the insulin is working correctly to help move the glucose through the blood into the cells. Your pancreas make insulin and puts it in your blood stream. The glucose stays in the blood and doesn’t get to the cells to be used up.
unit 5 P5- Explain the concept homeostasis with reference to the control of heart rate, breathing rate, body temperature and blood glucose.
The blood glucose level has very limited range for humans to survive and stay healthy. Generally, people are able to remove excess glucose rapidly from the body but this is not the case when they are diagnosed with diabetes and insulin resistant situations. The lack of insulin resistance can also lead to a decrease in glycogen synthesis and storage as it usually converts glucose to energy for cell’s use (Jensen & et al. 2011). When insulin is produced under insulin resistance, the cells are incapable of using them effectively which then leads to high blood sugar level as ketones and ketoacids are produced as an alternative energy source for the body. The rise of ketoacid causes the blood pH acidic and the patient may also be diagnosed with ketoacidosis (Newton & Raskin 2004). There would also be less intake of lipid and more of stored triglycerides as the lipids are effected by the insulin. As the glucose levels increase, the muscle glucose uptake will decrease while the liver glucose production and blood fatty acid concentration will also increase within the body (Lichtenstein & Schwab 2000). Excess glucose within the blood are converted to fat which can lead to Diabetic Dyslipidaemia and furthermore to obesity, hypertension and
Homeostasis is a self-regulating process of equilibrium where the internal conditions of an environment are kept constant to maintain its normal functions. Homeostasis exists to primarily help your body control body temperatures and fluids at stable levels. If homeostasis cannot be sustained within limitations, our body cannot function properly.
Blood glucose is normally maintained between 70 mg and 110 mg. Blood glucose levels below 70mg, denote the situation of "hypoglycemia". Although blood glucose levels of 110mg can be normal, this is only the case if a meal has been taken within 2 to 3 hours. A blood glucose level of 180mg or more, is termed "hyperglycemia." Diagnosis is made if blood glucose levels are above 200mg after drinking a sugar-water drink (Norman, 1997).
The human body is everything that makes up, well, you. The fundamental parts of the human body are the head, neck, middle, arms and legs. Our bodies comprise of various natural frameworks that do particular capacities vital for ordinary living. In this paper you will learn about: