Carl Rogers and Fritz Perls played important roles in the field of psychology. They modeled two great theories that are still used in the current psychology and counseling sessions. Even though Rogers and Perls are certainly two very extreme personalities, there are a lot of commonalities that exist between the person-centered and Gestalt theories those that stem from a similar existential base (Larsson, 2006). This work will explore major assumptions of the two theories, compare and contrast views and assessments of the normal and abnormal behavior between the two theories; it will further look into how behavior change is facilitated between the two theories. The work will also explore various technologies used between the two theories; it will also highlight the strengths and shortcomings between the two theories.
His 14 universal principles of management, listed in Table 1.1, were intended to show managers how to carry out their functional duties. Fayol’s functions and principles have withstood the test of time because of their widespread applicability. In spite of years of reformulation, rewording, expansion, and revision, Fayol’s original management functions still can be found in nearly all management texts. In fact, after an extensive review of studies of managerial work, a pair of management scholars
This paper analyzes five great management theorists: F. W. Taylor, Max Weber, Mary Parker Follett, and Douglas McGregor. Each theorist will be compared by four management functions: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling as detailed in the textbook: The Essentials of Contemporary Management-Sixth Edition from Gareth Jones and Jennifer M. George. We begin by discussing commerce prior the industrial revolution and then we define the key management functions, followed by an examination of each theorist, applying a template of analysis and critique.
Management is a very complex field. Not only must managers pay attention to what is best for the organization, but they also have to do what is best for their customers. At the same time, the manager must satisfy the need of their employees. Henri Fayol developed fourteen principles of management in 1916 that organisations are recommended to apply to order to run properly. This paper will show how some of Fayols
Employees require motivation, reward and encouragement for maximum productivity. Punishment to workers not performing is also mandatory to prevent cases of poor performance. Ethical considerations must be looked at and employees must follow rules and company policies for plans made by management to be successful. Workers and management relate like a family and this has enabled the company perform to its expectation. These plans are aimed at ensuring total customer satisfaction and delight.
The twentieth century has brought in a number of management theories which have helped shaped our view of management in the present business environment. These emerging theories have enabled managers to appreciate new patterns of thinking, new ways of organising and new ways of managing organisations and people. Over the years these different theories have enabled the study
Beyond the shadow of doubt, all aspects of sociology would not be the same today if it wasn't for the work of Emile Durkheim and Max Weber. Their contributions to sociology are so generous and powerful that they are known as the ‘classical sociologists’ (Carter, 2007). Durkheim's opinion on sociology is that it is completely separate and not like philosophy and psychology, it is instead the academic work of social facts, with the end desire of continuing social order. (Ritzer, 2011). For Weber, sociology is ‘concerned to understand how people make sense of their own experience and how social interaction between individuals builds into larger social structures” (Carter, 2007, p.56).
The concept of power has been a topic of interest of many sociologists as they seek to define the term. Ensuring that the exercise of power is legitimate is a key integral to the concept of power in present day. However, although the power is seen as legitimate, it also has to be exercised appropriately as; ‘power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely’ (Dalberg-Acton, 1907: 504). Max Weber and Hannah Arendt are two sociologists whose ideology of what the concept of power is, are at the opposite ends of a pole. It is different in the fact that both theories approach different aspects of power. Weber’s account of power is more associated with everyday understanding and use of power, whereas Arendt’s account of power focuses more on power as a tool when speaking and acting in concert (Goverde H. & Lentner H, 2000).
Fritz Perls, along with Laura Perls and Paul Goodman, developed Gestalt therapy in the 1940’s (Spillman & Rosen, 2014, p. 202). Fritz Perls was born into a Jewish family, but never fully identified with his Jewish heritage. In Gestalt Therapy: Excitement and growth in the human personality, Fritz Perls promotes the “Gestalt way of life”, which is when individuals become more aware of themselves and their needs rather than to allow external forces to dictate how they live their life (Perls, 1971). In other words, Gestalt therapy’s model could best be summarized by the “I do my thing, and you do your thing. I am not in this world to live up to your expectations and you are not in this world to live up to mine” motto (Spillman & Rosen, 2014, p. 203).
Human Resources is dependent on the success, happiness, and contentment of employees that keep the business on course. Motivation is one of the best ways to push employees forward while making sure everyone is in a comfortable position in their job. Motivational theories just attempt to explain what motivates or makes people act the way that they do. The goal of understanding these theories and their outcomes is to ensure a better performance from each employee, and to give each of those employees the best situation they can have in the workplace. Visionaries such as Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, and Henry A. Landsberger also brought forward new ways of management and ways to handle internal situations that changed the landscape of human resources as a whole. Motivational theories instituted in the workplace have a commonly positive effect on both employees and management, showing that it is important to strive for proven motivational practices.
Since Fayol left his general manager office, separated management from business operation and studied it, management has become an independent subject. A number of academics and entrepreneurs are desirous to find what management is and how to be a successful manager. Therefore, through varied approaches, many different views about management has been appearing such as Fayol’s function theory (1949) which based on his owe managing experience and Mintzberg’s 10 roles theory (1973) which came from observing five chief-executive officers. Furthermore, Mintzberg regarded Fayol’s theory as “folklore”. It seems that Fayol’s theory has been made redundant by Mintzberg’s study. The purpose of this paper, however, is to present that
Emile Durkheim and Max Weber both studied religion with different goals and interests. Durkheim is interested in finding religion’s function in the society while Weber focused more on explaining the reason why capitalism thrive with Protestantism. Due to the differences in the nature of their research, It is natural to find incompatibility of their perspectives, yet similarities can be seen throughout their works. In the following paragraphs, I will attempt to first illustrate the differences in their theories, and then we can connect both doctrines to paint the bigger picture of religion.
In the early 1900’s, some of the first ideas were thrown together to allow an organization to flourish in the upcoming modern era. The first theories were known as scientific and classical management, which focused on three separate theories from Frederick Taylor, Henri Fayol, and Max Weber. The three theories have similar ideology in the fact that organization is driven by management authority, employees only source of motivation is money, and organizations are machinelike with employees making up the parts of the machine (Papa, Daniels, & Spiker, 2008). In the Prophecy Fulfilled case study, Mary Ann (senior auditor) takes on a management role with subordinates similar to that of Weber’s Bureaucratic Theory (Daniels 1987, pp. 77-78).
According tot the Administrative Management Theory, management is the process of getting certain tasks completed through the use of people. In this theory developed by Henri Fayol, he believes that it was very important to have the use of a multiplied of people instead of just relying on one person alone. Henri Fayol is known today as the “Father of Modern Management”, his theory has shaped what is know today as the Administrative Model, which relies on Fayols fourteen principles of management. These principles have been a significant influence on modern management; they have helped early 20th century manager learn how to organize and interact with their employees in a productive way. Fayols principles of management were the ground work in which his theory was formed. He believed highly in the division of work throughout a project and within the project he believed that the task at hand had to be done with a certain level of discipline in order for the division of work to be able to run smoothly without error.
By the time Henri Fayol had finished his theory, General Industrial Management, in 1916, which was based on his reminiscence as a successful turnaround of a major mining company from depths of failure; he set out to illustrate management as being a separate entity to other jobs within an organisation as he would say although “technical” and “commercial” “function” were “clearly defined”, “administrative” education was lacking. In his theory he introduced his five duties a manager had to follow to be called effective: plan, organise coordinate, command, and control and added to this fourteen principles he felt managers should use as reference to conduct the five duties. However Fayol was very much an idealist his theory was based on what a complete manager should be like and gave the view of managers taking control from behind a desk, yet critics, most influential being the academic Henry Mintzberg, who released his work in 1973, were more realists and saw a manager life as chaotic, involved and interactive, arguing what Fayol was portraying is not possible, and outdated.