Pharmaceutical Formulations And The Treatment Of Human And Animal Disease Conditions

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Pharmaceutical formulations are effective in the treatment of human and animal disease conditions (Thiele-Bruhn and Beck, 2005) but, they are now widely prevalent in the environment due to their persistence and biological activity. Prescription (branded and non-branded) and over-the-counter medications are the major classifications of pharmaceutical products available to the United States population. Generally, the molecular weights of therapeutic medicines may range from 200 to 500 / 1000 Dalton. Currently, there is insufficient information on the total global administration of pharmaceuticals to humans and animals. Despite the unavailability of data, sales in 2004 alone totaled $518 billion (Kümmerer, 2009). An increase to about $1.2 trillion by 2016 is expected due to the influence of merging markets, biologics and generics (IMS Health, 2012). Consequently, increased production, sales and ingestion of pharmaceutical chemicals (PHCs) may translate to higher pharmaceutical residues transported into surface waters. Typically, an ingested pharmaceutical substance is metabolized and a part expelled possibly in different forms to wastewater storage areas, septic systems / lagoons, etc. Notably, the removal of PHCs during conventional wastewater treatments is inefficient because of the nature of these chemicals (Zuehlke et al., 2004; Daughton, 2007).
The prevalence of pharmaceuticals in the environment has prompted several published research articles on wastewaters,
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