Essay on Phil 1600 Ch 3 Questions

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1. What Role does Inner conflict play in human moral development?
a. Inner conflict often plays the role of motivation in the human moral development. According to the book, an addict has to “hit bottom” in order to begin the recovery journey. Another example would be a college dropout who ends up struggling in the real world, unhappy with his life and decides to go back to school to pursue a career.
2. What role does fear of change play in human moral development?
a. It plays a role of survival, in which what you are given is what’s best for you. Often times, when you don’t experience an inner conflict you will have a fear of change. For instance, when our fear of change outweighs our inner conflict we are unlikely to make life
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An example would be a husband wife couple making any sort of decision that will impact their life.
d. Stage 4: Law and Order
i. Moral decisions made to maintain the orderly society.
e. Stage 5: Social Contract
i. Moral decisions made with regards to others rights. Example would be, women having the ability to vote.
f. Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle
i. Similar to social contracts except that at this level person is willing to die for his or her principles. E
6. In your own words, explain each of the author’s problems (criticisms) with Kohlberg’s theory.
a. The author mentions that he doesn’t like how Kohlberg focuses too much on “why”. The author says that Kohlberg is narrow to focus on motivation rather the action itself. Another issue is how flexible or rigid each stage are presented. In the text a question is raised stating that can a person in stage 5 have a stage 1 morning. Basically the criticism here is that Kohlberg does not clarify weather his rules are bendable or not. The Author goes to on another criticism where he asks if justice is the most important ethical principle. He states that the sample size for someone to reach stage 6 is very small so why is justice the most important factor? Finally, his last criticism is how gender plays a different role in moral development. In Kohlberg’s research, most of which were young boys, he found the moral difference in young males. According the author Gilligan thought that Kohlberg’s research

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