Political Risk Management and Insurance: A Contextual Comparison
[Institution's Name] Abstract
This dissertations presents concept of political risk in the context of Efficient Market Theory (Hypothesis) and State capitalism. The paper explores the link between the three ways of insuring political risk to economic theories. Using case study of a multinational firm the political regime and its effect has been explored on business situations and how it can be managed. Political risks are the threats arising for a business due to the actions of a host government. Multinational firms in particular face political risks due to expansion of their businesses to developing countries. Author has explained and examined how political risk management has been developed in the contemporary history. A comparative analysis of concepts that deal with political risk under the contexts of prevailing ideologies; political and economic constructs has been conducted.
Table of Contents TOC o "1-3" h z u HYPERLINK l "_Toc339812563"Chapter-1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc339812563 h 3
HYPERLINK l "_Toc339812564"Introduction and Background PAGEREF _Toc339812564 h 3
HYPERLINK l "_Toc339812565"Purpose Statement PAGEREF _Toc339812565 h 3
HYPERLINK l "_Toc339812566"Research Question PAGEREF _Toc339812566 h 3
HYPERLINK l "_Toc339812567"Significance of Research Study PAGEREF _Toc339812567 h 3
HYPERLINK l "_Toc339812568"Chapter-2 Political Risk Management PAGEREF _Toc339812568
As previously identified, there are also “non-legal/extra-governmental” political risks which could bring unexpected upheaval to foreign firms. Macro political risks such as the threat of violence, corruption, war or military coup, political instability and terrorism are all direct threats to foreign investors.
A1. Global risks are usually predictable and have a high probability of occurrence but are often referred to as uncontrollable risks (Merna, 2008). Of the risks listed above, one that has more of a global aspect on marketplace activities is the political and regulatory risks. This would include potential losses from expropriation, nationalization, civil unrest, terrorism and significant changes to trade policy. Specifically,
However, the investment was not without risks. There are four types of risks in international business called cross-culture risk, country risk, currency risk and commercial risk. Cross-cultural risk refers to a situation or event where a cultural miscommunication puts some human value at stake. Country risk describes the potentially adverse effects on company operations and profitability holes by developments in the political, legal, and economic environment in a foreign country. Currency risk is the risk of adverse unexpected fluctuations in exchange rates. Commercial risk refers to potential loss or failure from poorly developed or executed business strategies, tactics, or procedures (Boter & Wincent, 2010). Investment in Rulmenti Grei, Timken might face the salient risks of political and economic instability. Romania’s economic growth was slower, inflation was higher, and the labor force was more volatile. Furthermore, there might be a risk of re-nationalization. It is said that economic risk analysis tells corporate leaders the ability of a particular country to pay its debt while political risk analysis tells them whether that country will pay its debt. Political risk measures the stability of individual countries through the
Governments might change or new political parties might be elected, but the concern of the multinational corporation is the continuity of the set of rules or codes of behavior and the continuation of the rule of law—regardless of which government is in power.
Over the year’s organizations from, all parts of the world have experienced growth in the areas of business. Much of this growth is in part due to multinational companies, many of them enjoying significant benefits. One such area is investment, however it creates benefits for foreign MNCs, and it brings about concern. Perhaps the greatest fear. Fear concerning state owned corporations and the lack of effectiveness of legislation / regulatory enforcement.
All countries in the world have various political environment and regimes. Political systems differ in terms of the governance, power and the rule of law. A political regime can be defined as structures, activities and processes by which given countries in the world govern themselves. Political systems can be based on either collectivism or individualism. It is essential for business to look at a country’s political environment as a vital criterion in venturing or expanding the business or company to that country. This is because political systems differ and each has its own form of governance that impacts a business in terms of its growth. International companies carry out international manufacture and activity in that they
It is important to indicate that a country risk analysis is not static. As factors of the analysis change within the country, the risk of investing in that country also changes. These analyses are fluid and are always fluctuating. Changes can be indicative of deliberate governmental action taken by the country while other times the risks may change because of an action other countries have taken. The purpose of this paper is to create a risk analysis for the Republic of Nicaragua and to explain the
Direct export access to China used to be difficult due to the complexity and slowness of the country 's customs rules and regulations. But with the relaxation in regulatory restrictions and the opening of its markets to foreign investors, China could become the next successful market for cognac and champagne importers. The elimination of tariffs in the wake of China 's accession to the World Trade Organization may encourage more cognac and champagne importers to the mainland, thereby skewing cognac/champagne import statistics in the near future. Last year, China ranked 20th in terms of cognac imports, with 1.2 million bottles (Export.gov). Since China became a member of the World Trade
The level of internationalisation around the globe has grown throughout the years, with advanced technologies the ease and ability to work with foreign countries has also grown. However, firms do not simply interact with each other with no outside party involvement; the government can be seen to play a large role in conducting international business. Governments continuously have the responsibility to act in the manner that they believe is best for their nation; this includes decisions regarding protectionism, which may serve to aid domestic industries but simultaneously hinder international business. It can be seen that governments do not always act in their nation’s best interest and are corrupt which can serve to increase the risks and costs of entering an international business environment. While these are examples in which the government makes international business difficult it can also be seen that the presence of a government is instrumental in creating international business effectiveness, whether this be through their legal system or from trade agreements. This makes the role the government plays paradoxical; as their involvement generally increases the risks and costs of firms seeking to internationalise, whilst simultaneously playing a significant role in creating international business effectiveness.
1. Political risk and country risk are challenges that must be strategically considered by multinational firms. What is one real-world firm that deals with political and country risk?
Evans and Richardson (2007), contend that globalized economic environment is complex and changes from time to time and this places a heavy responsibility on multinationals and other business enterprises. They are forced to adapt in order to deal with these factors for the benefit of their organizations. A company cannot ignore political issues when assessing the business environment in which it operates because it affects government policies such as licensing, regulation and taxation, which have a direct consequence on the activities of a business enterprise (Evans, & Richardson, 2007).
Political environment is significant to do business in other countries. There are different factors of political environment. These factors can influence the government decision making and other activities. For foreign investors every country set some rules and regulations. Investor need to maintain these rules and regulation to do business on certain country. Political factors can influence the government to change these regulations. So investors need to know the regulations and get the proper knowledge about political environment.
Political economy is not a new word for us because of the close relationships between politics and the economy. The development in politics is due to the development in society and the development in society is mostly driven by the economy. The parallel existence and mutual interaction of ‘state’ and ‘market’ in the modern world creates ‘political economy’; without both state and market there could be no political economy (Gilpin, 2003, P9). Market allocates resources to a particular group, class or region where conditions are most favorable. As a consequence, market economies result in the uneven development both domestically and internationally. As our issue is about international
THE POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT: The critical concern Political environment has a very important impact on every business operation no matter what its size, its area of operation. Whether the company is domestic, national, international, large or small political factors of the country it is located in will have an impact on it. And the most crucial & unavoidable realities of international business are that both host and home governments are integral partners. Reflected in its policies and attitudes toward business are a governments idea of how best to promote the national interest, considering its own resources and political philosophy. A government control's and restricts a company's