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Pre-Implantation Genetic Analysis

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Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a technique used to screen and diagnose embryos for genetic and chromosomal diseases. This treatment is often used for couples that carry genetic disorders or diseases and want to prevent their offspring from inheriting these. PGD is available for couples who may have had multiple miscarriages or infertility problems, or who have had previous affected children (Scriven, 2011). In the last decade non-medical related uses for this technology such as sex selection, has become an increasingly prevalent reality. The use of PGD for this purpose is a controversial issue that raises ethical, social and financial issues around the world.
PGD is a complex process as it involves both in vitro fertilization
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These injections contain the natural hormones FSH and LH, which stimulate the ovaries to release multiple eggs as opposed to one egg that is usually released per cycle. These eggs are retrieved from the woman’s ovaries by inserting a needle though her vaginal wall (Shady Grove Fertility, 2014). These eggs are placed in a special culture medium where they are exposed to sperm from a male partner, and thus fertilization takes place (University of Pennsylvania, 2015). 23 chromosomes from the male are mixed with 23 chromosomes from the female resulting in a single-cell embryo called a zygote. This zygote is the first cell of a human body, containing 46 chromosomes with an entire genetic ‘blueprint’ of a new individual. After 24 to 30 hours after fertilization the DNA of the…show more content…
On the other hand, if we consider cosmetic plastic surgery, people who want to change/alter the way they look non-medical reasons, then one could argue the validity of using PGD for sex selection is no different. As long as people are willing and can afford to pay then it should be perfectly acceptable (Robertson, 2013).
As PGD is an expensive procedure only people who can afford it have the luxury of choosing the sex of their child. This could, in time create a class barrier, where only middle to high classed people have the ability to shape the course of their pregnancy and parenting
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