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Propagation Path Transmission Model

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In wireless networks, propagation path loss plays a major role in determining the quality of service because a poorly designed path can result in periodic system outages. Propagation path loss accurate determination leads to the development of high quality and robust network. To determine or validate the values of propagation path loss of an existing network in a given environment several types of research have been carried out in many countries in the past and are still ongoing [6]. In the continued evolution of network standards, appropriate path loss propagation models must be deployed to maximise the standard of quality of service in an area. In this literature review, a general overview of propagation mechanisms is discussed. The free…show more content…
When non line of sight (NLOS) exists in the radio path, the wave propagates behind the obstacle, through diffraction gives rise to a bending of waves around the obstacle. Diffraction explains how radio frequency (RF) energy can travel in an environment without a line-of-sight path [7].The angle of the incident, the amplitude, the geometry of the object, and the phase of the signal are responsible for making diffraction. Scattering This occurs when the medium through which the wave is traveling contains objects which are much smaller than the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave. Scattering also refers to any process by which wave propagation is altered by a particle or group of particles thereby causing the signal energy to spread out in all directions. This phenomenon is similar to refraction, but it is more unpredictable. Dust, humidity, unevenness and other qualities in a material can cause a signal to scatter in all directions which have a significant impact on signal integrity and strength. Scattering is the reflection of the sound waves in directions other than its original direction of propagation. In designing base stations, it is very important to have the knowledge about the electromagnetic environment where the system is operated, and the location of the transmitter and receiver. it is difficult to predict indoor radio propagation because of the dense multipath
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