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RSV Is the Leading VIral Agent Respiratory Tract Disease Worldwide

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Epidemiology: RSV plays a major role in respiratory infection among the childhood population, especially infants and younger children. It is the leading viral agent respiratory tract disease worldwide, causing bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and young children. There are about 100,000 cases and 4,500 deaths yearly of RSV infections in the United States (1). Typically, all children are infected with RSV by age 2 to 3; however, the infections can reemerge up to 5 to 6 per year. RSV was first extracted from chimpanzees that were showing upper respiratory tract disease as an agent in 1956 (1). The chimpanzees had an upper respiratory tract illness in addition to coryza, runny nose, and malaise. The humans that interacted with these…show more content…
How RSV works: . The F (fusion) glycoprotein is responsible for membrane fusion such as viral penetration and syncytium formation. The G (glycoprotein) protein is responsible for viral attachment and a major antigenic determinant of RSV since it induces protective antibodies (3). The SH (small hydrophobic) protein, matrix protein (M), and the M2 protein are envelope-associated proteins that are not involved in viral attachment or syncytium formation (3). Other proteins such as the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), and the large nucleoprotein (L) are in the nucleocapsid. NS-1 and NS-2 are non-structure protein that is only found in the infected cells but not present in virions (3). RSV activation: RSV comes into the airway epithelium from the apical side only and aims to destroy the ciliated epithelia cells (4). Then RSV buds and releases the virus from the apical surface (4). RSV is caused by TLR3 activation. It initiates infections by binding to a cellular receptor and then the viral envelope fuses with the plasma membrane. The virus attaches the cell through the main protein, the G protein and fuses with the plasma membrane of the host cell through the F protein. After penetration, the nucleocapsid of the virus is released into the cytoplasm where replication occurs (3). The viral RNA is like a template for mRNA (3). The mRNA’s job is to translate the viral proteins and complementary RNA serves as a template for virion RNA
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