Respiratory Syncytial Virus ( Rsv )

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Introduction Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is considered the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants and young children. Each year, 4-5 million children younger than 4 years acquire an RSV infection, and more than 125,000 are hospitalized annually in the United States because of this infection. (Medscape, 2016). Etiology RSV is the most common cause of LRTI’s leading to morbidity and mortality in children across the world. Most children have acquired an RSV infection by the time they reach 2 years of age. It is typical to see these infections during the winter/early spring seasons in temperate regions, and during the rainy seasons in tropical areas. This is likely due to the increase of indoor crowding related to weather. The transmission of RSV requires close contact by either a large particle aerosol, or by contamination of hands followed by an inoculation into the eye or nose. Secondary infections are seen in in family contacts of an individual with a primary case due to their close contact. Pathophysiology RSV belongs to the paramyxovirus family of viruses. The virion encompasses a helical nucleocapsid packaged in a lipoprotein envelope attained from the host cell plasma membrane during budding. The external surface of the envelope contains a periphery of surface spikes. RSV enters a cell through fusion at the plasma membrane. Initiation emerges when the G protein of the RSV binds to a specific long unbranched polysaccharide of the
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