Reformation Essay

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Reformation

In the first half of the sixteenth century Western Europe experienced a wide range of social, artistic, political changes as the result of a conflict within the Catholic church. This conflict is called the Protestant Reformation, and the Catholic response to it is called the Counter-Reformation.
The Reformation began when Martin Luther posted his Ninety-Five theses against the indulgences of the Church. These indulgences included if you did a good dead, this reduced the amount of punishment which you deserved for your bad deeds, and which God would make you suffer after your death before letting you into Heaven. Giving money to the Church was considered a good dead. If you wanted to you could pay for the indulgences
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On his way home he disappeared. What had started as a furious attempt to reform the church overnight turned into a project of building a new church independent of the Catholic Church.
While Germany struggled under the political and religious consequences of Luther's reform movement, the movement itself quickly spilled out of the German borders into neighboring Switzerland. At the time, Switzerland was not a single country but a confederacy of thirteen city-states called cantons. When Luther's ideas began to pour over the border, several of the cantons broke from the Catholic church and became Protestant while other cantons remained firmly Catholic. Of the cantons that adopted Luther's new movement, the most important and powerful was the city-state of Zurich under the leadership of Ulrich Zwingli. He was popular in Zurich for his opposition to Swiss mercenary service in foreign wars and his attacks on indulgences; he was, as significant a player in the critique of indulgences as Luther himself.
Zwingli rose through the ranks of the Catholic Church until he was appointed "People's Priest" in 1519, the most powerful ecclesiastical position in the city. In 1523, the city officially adopted Zwingli's central ecclesiastical reforms and became the first Protestant state outside of Germany. From there the Protestant revolution would sweep across the map of Switzerland. Zwingli's theology and morality were based on a single principle that
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