In the past 20 years, the central banks in most developed countries had successfully managed to control the inflation rate. However, the financial crisis 2008 has highlighted the links between financial market and policy. (Ravn, 2011) The topic I am going to discuss is the relationship between monetary policy and the stock market. What factors have influenced interest rate and how the policymakers should react to the change in stock market have driven the increasing attentions lately. Taylor Rule (2003) will be the core theory used to discuss the model tested. The interpretation of simple Taylor rule is very straightforward. According to the equationi_t=c+β(π_t-π_t^* )+γ(y_t-y_t^* )+ε_t , the policy will be mainly affected by inflation gap and output gap. (Woodford, 2001) The reason why Taylor uses interest rate to represent monetary policy is that the central bank likes to adjust interest rate as a tool to maintain the balance in the market. While, there is a strong debate about the other variables, in particular, stock price volatility. After taking asset price volatility into account, the augmented Taylor rule equation will be reformulated as:i_t=c+β(π_t-π_t^* )+γ(y_t-y_t^* )+∑_(k=1)^n▒〖δ_k s_(t-k)+ε_t 〗. It will influence the monetary policy while the importance of asset price in the market is very controversial. Scholars including Bernanke and Gertler question the importance of asset price in determining the monetary policy and claim that the influence
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
The Federal Reserve has the dual job of ensuring price stability and maximum employment, which are contradictory objectives. The Feds try to achieve the goals through monetary policy which determines the demand and supply of money by controlling interest rates. The Fed’s goal is to achieve a natural rate of unemployment of more or less 5%. When the actual unemployment figures are below the natural rate of unemployment, inflation increases and there is a high demand of goods and services propelling the economy with the ensuing labor demands and the pressure it places on wages, which in turn produces inflation. When the Fed is faced with this scenario, it must increase the rates to slow the growth and achieve price stability (contractionary cycle).
In the late 2007, early 2008 the United States and the world was hit with the most serious economic downturn since The Great Depression in 1929. During this time the Federal Reserve played a huge role in assuring that it would not turn into the second Great Depression. In this paper, we will be discussing what the Federal Reserve did during this time, including a discussion of our nation’s three main economic goals which are GDP, employment, and inflation. My goal is to describe the historic monetary and fiscal policy efforts undertaken by the U.S. Government and Federal Reserve, including both the traditional and non-traditional measures to ease credit markets and stimulate the economy.
This report discusses the association between the Federal Reserve System and U.S. Monetary Policy. It mentions that the government can finance war through money printing, debt, and raising taxes. It affirms that The Federal Reserve is not a government entity but an independent one. It supports that the Federal Reserve’s policies are the root cause of boom and bust cycles. It confirms that the FED’s money printing causes inflation and loss of wealth for United States citizens. It affirms that the government’s involvement in education through student loans has raised the cost of a college education. It confirms that the United States economy is in a housing bubble, the stock market bubble, bond market bubble, student loan bubble, dollar bubble, and consumer loan bubble. It supports the idea that the Federal Reserve does not raise interest rates because of the fear of deflating the bubbles they have created in recent years.
The Federal Reserve has three tools to help maintain and make changes within money supply and policies. The first tool and most popular tool is open market operations. The Reserve uses this instrument to regulate the rate of federal funds within the system, which is merely the rate in which banks borrow reserves from other banks. With this tool, they can alter the interest rates and amount of money on the open market. Therefore, the Reserve can essentially control the total money stream, whether that is expanding and contracting it.
The United States government continues to attempt to control the stability of the economy through the monetary policies management of the United States money supply, being economically strong in the world’s economy is an attribute that the government continue to strive to maintain. Although theories leading to the Federal Reserve are controversial basic knowledge is important. This paper explores the monetary policies tools of the open market operations, discount rates, and the required reserve ratio. In the context monetary policies will be identified, explained, and the usages noted. Also highlighted is how the monetary policies are used to balance unemployment and high inflation. Monetary Policies plays a vital role in the upholding
The first tool the Federal Reserve has for influencing the economy is through the federal funds rate. This allows a change in interest rates which means that banks may have to pay a higher or lower interest rate to the Federal Reserve for borrowing money. If the rate is increased it slows down the economy because the cost for money and credit is increased as well, but if the rate is decreased the economy is more likely to grow because money then becomes more available for investment and growth. The second tool used to influence the economy is through the purchasing or selling of federal debt. Selling federal debt tends to slow down the economy because people are less likely to invest. Buying federal debt tends to help the economy grow by allowing
In order for the Federal Reserve to fulfill their goal of moderate long term interest rates, stable prices and maximum employment, they rely on developing strategic changes to the monetary policy. Through monetary policy changes, the Federal Reserve can either restrict or encourage economic growth and inflation, thereby molding the macroeconomy into a state of consistent health. Overall, there are three tools used to modify the monetary policy, they include reserve requirements, discount rates, and open market operations. In an effort to promote price stability within the economy, these tools influence monetary conditions by affecting interest rates, credit availability, money supply and security prices. While one tool is use more frequently than the others, all three are necessary in establishing stable economic conditions.
United States Federal Reserve system, also known as Federal Reserve or simply “Fed” is the United States central banking system. The Federal Reserve took inception in 1913, after the adoption of the Federal Reserve Act. The United States Congress has mandated three macroeconomic objectives to the Federal Reserve. These are minimum levels of unemployment, prices stability and keeping in check the rates of interests. Over the years, the role of Federal Reserve has expanded. It now formulates the country’s monetary policies, conducts supervision and regulation of the banking institutions, maintenance of the financial
To begin, the article explains the Federal Reserve’s plan to take a careful approach to enacting contractionary monetary policies, policies used to decrease money supply, in the future. Last December the Federal Reserve raised the interest rates after they had been near zero for years to ensure inflation was kept in check and to promote economic growth. It appeared the economy would be in for another increase in the interest rates sometime this year, but the Feds have rethought that strategy. If the Federal Reserve were to continue to raise interest rates it would have short-run and long-run effects on the Money Market, Goods and Services Market, Planned Investment, Phillip Curve, and Aggregated Supply and Demand. These effects are aspects that have to be considered because they express and explain the effects the increase in interest rates has on the economy and explain if the Federal Reserve is enacting the correct policy to achieve their goal.
The Federal Reserve Act lays out the monetary policy that states that the Board of Governors and the Federal Open Market Committee should look for "to support effectively the aims of maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates." The pre-requirement for highest sustainable growth and employment rates along with long term interest rates is price stability in the long run. Long run stable prices prevents merchandise, services, materials and labor from getting distorted by inflation and hence turn out to be good indicators to the proficient distribution of resources and consequently add to better and higher standards of living (Meyer, 2004). Moreover, price stability promotes saving and generates capital since the risk of inflation causing attrition of asset values is decreased and hence people are driven to save more and business tend to invest more.
Most people don’t understand Economic growth or what takes place in the economy with regard to inflation, unemployment, or interest rates. These things are all regulated by the central bank called the Federal Reserve System. The tope covered in this paper is the monetary policy which is the policy that decides if unemployment, interest, and inflation decreases or increases. The Monetary policy decides what price a person pays for an item at the store, how much interest a person will get charged on a loan for a car. This is something most people consider, most just look for the best price point or look where their money can go the farthest.
The Federal Reserve went into action in response to the 2008 recession by rapidly reducing interest rates with the hopes of encouraging economic growth. The federal funds target rate was decreased to between zero and .25 percent. The results of the rate changes caused what is called “zero bound”, this reduced the effectiveness of monetary policy with the near non-existence of interest rates.
In the late October of 1929, the United States Stock Market took an immense plummet. This plummet acted as a catalyst to the beginning of the 10 year long Great Depression. It was known as Black Tuesday, aka the Wall Street Crash of 1929. (Harold)
this change is not always equal to the output of the change. This is called “Multipliers”. In this case we have Tax Multipliers and Government spending multipliers. If the government does not raise taxes and the consumer has more money to spend, normally that means he or she will spend more. However, there is a possibility that the consumer will spend some and save some of the money that they have based on lower taxes.
Forward Guidance is an unconventional monetary policy used by the central bank to provide path for future interest rates to individuals and businesses. Recently, the Bank of England has adopted this policy. In this essay, we will explain the rationale behind the use of this policy with the help of IS-LM model along with AD-AS model. The IS-LM model explains the relationship between interest and income level and changes in equilibrium level through the use of monetary and fiscal policy. Therefore, will be adequate in explaining the logic for applying this policy. Whereas, the AD-AS model may help in analysing the inflation condition of this policy.