In tests and assessments validity refers to the degree where theoretical and empirical evidence supports the meaning and interpretation of the test scores (Reynolds & Livingston, 2013). Validity is important in testing and assessment as validity refers to credibility from a trustworthy source. In this respect, validity is important for scientist and professionals to select appropriate methods that support the meaning and interpretation of test scores. In psychology, reliability is concerned with stability and consistency (Reynolds & Livingston, 2013). Reliability focuses on the context of measurement which can be influenced by endless factors, that can affect a score (Reynolds & Livingston, 2013). Such a concept is important for …show more content…
Reliability and validity can use improvement in terms of testing and assessment. Reynolds and Livingston (2013) suggest that by adding more test questions can improve the reliability and validity (Reynolds & Livingston, 2013). Another suggestion is for constructs and content to be clearly defined, otherwise, scores can get lost in interpretation (Reynolds & Livingston, 2013). The bottom line is that testing and assessments are not for everyone. A person interested in pursuing psychometrics field must truly have a calling and interest in such a profession as it can be complex with many factors to consider. In a sense, psychometricians are pioneers and innovators who seek to answer questions of observations made. Thus, reliability and validity may be more clearly defined by a person who has a clear idea of what they are interested in testing. From a scholar’s perspective, this writer utilizes various scholarly resources from the University library, which are considered to have some sort of validity, as such articles come from a credible source. However, it does not mean that such scholarly resources are valid or help with the interpretation of what this writer may be interested in exploring. Therefore, this writer must pay close attention to the content found in scholarly resources in order to utilize the information
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Largely, the entire test proved thought provoking as this was a subjective test. Meaning everyone's values are not the same, everyone is not driven by the same motives. This could be problematic in obtaining valid results. It has given this writer cause to carefully examine assessments that are being administered clients. Reliability and validity have a great importance in how counselor should utilize assessments and can assist in finding appropriate instruments in order to be more effective with clients.
One of the most common tests of reliability is replication, which takes the form of test-retest, parallel forms of instruments, odd-even item correlations, or measures of internal consistency (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). In inter-rater reliability, different people are utilized with the same test. This is also a strategy used to
Validity refers to whether the research conducted is what it intended to be. Validity involves dependability, which means, a valid measure must be reliable. But, reliability doesn’t have to link to validity, a reliable measure is not required to be valid.
"Tests that are not so categorized will tend to be viewed less positively, regardless of psychometric data, because they are, after all, not objective" (Meyer & Kurtz, 2006, p. 223). Because of the past, there is too much negativity surrounding the term, projective. The terminology both, "objective" and "projective" are not necessarily what they seem. "The term "objective" is a smokescreen for measures that can be just as subjective as anything else and the term "projective" is derived from untenable theoretical concepts that have continued to create confusion in the field for a long time" (Schultheiss, 2007, p. 197). Some other substantial problem is when the effects of a test cannot be duplicated by the same test more than one time. "If assessment psychologists did not derive overarching frameworks and terminologies for classifying psychological tests, those who use, study, or critique these tests would do it anyway. In this respect, it is better that an organizing framework be made explicit (and the logic underlying the framework spelled out in detail) than that multiple contrasting framework and labels emerge in isolation among different segments of the psychological community" (Bornstein, 2007, p. 205). The volume of the dilemmas above have all been a culmination of psychologists and psychiatrists in this community and
Validity refers to that measuring tool or approaches can accurately measure things needed to be measured. It can be considered as an extent that measured results reflect investigative contents. Measured results more tend to be identical, validity will be higher, vice versa. Guba and Lincoln (1981) argued that whole social research must include invalidity in order to acquire worthwhile data within both the rationalistic paradigm (quantitative research) and naturalistic paradigm (qualitative research). Some factors can determine the level of validity, which include bias, construct
367, 2012). This particular validity is important when it comes to legal defensibility. Construct validity explains how what is being studied matches the actual measure. Criterion validity answers the question of whether a test reflects a certain set of abilities. One way to assess criterion validity is to compare it to a known standard. A reference is needed to determine an instrument’s criterion-related validity. Criterion-related validity predicts the future. If a nursing program designed a measure to assess student learning throughout the program, a test such as the NCLEX would measure student’s ability in this discipline. If the instrument produces the same result as the superior test the instrument has a high criterion-related validity. The higher the results the more faith stakeholders will have in the assessment tool. “A criterion-related validity study is conducted by statistically correlating scores with some measure of job performance” (Biddle, p.308, 2010). Criterion-related validity is most important when it comes to predicting performance in a specific job, and predicting future
Construct validity relates the qualities that the measures. It seems to have the appropriate relationship between what we wish to evaluate and what we are testing. Construct validity pursues agreement between a theoretical thought and a particular measuring device or procedure. It is considered to be higher than any other types of validity. The experimental demonstration that a test is measuring the construct it claims to be measuring is traditionally explained as construct validity. A test is said to have construct validity if it describes an association between the test score and the expectation of a theoretical trait. The word “construct” means ability or sub-ability. Intelligent tests is an example of measurement instruments that should
According to Green et al. (2011), reliability coefficients matter with respect to test norms, validity studies, individual assessment, and test sensitivity. Reliability coefficients are important in these cases because they inform researchers and practitioners on how to use test scores, which will have implications for those who are being assessed. Moreover, these four subcategories address how reliability coefficients provide information about how well test scores are actually measuring the psychological constructs they are designed to measure. These factors are important to consider in that they influence interpretation and application of test results that may be used to develop tests or make conclusions about individuals. Regarding test
Reliability is defined, within psychometric testing, as the stability of a research study or measure(s). Reliability can be examined externally, Inter-rater and Test-Retest, as well as internally; which is seen in internal consistency reliability methods.
For this study , the construct validity was established through principal component analysis to ascertain the unidimensionality of the scale.The reliability of the factor analysis is dependent on sample size, correlation between the variables and the distribution of
Validity is defined as, “the development of sound evidence to demonstrate the test interpretation of scores about the concept or construct that the test is assumed to measure matches its proposed uses... validity is the degree to which all of the evidence is points to the
In many cases, therapists use these tests to learn qualitative information about a client. Some therapists may use projective tests to encourage the client to discuss issues or examine thoughts and emotions. Additionally, projective tests that do not have standard grading scales tend to lack both validity and reliability. Validity refers to whether or not a test is measuring what it purports to measure, while reliability refers to the consistency of the test results (Cohen, et al., 2013)
Psychological tests or psychological assessments are an important asset in the field of psychology. These tests are designed to measure people’s characteristics which pertain to behavior. There are a variety of different types of tests that can be used to assess different types of behaviors. According to the specific behavior or behaviors being assessed, tests are
Another important criterion, though it is not touched upon, is the validity of the tests. If reliability is how consistent a score is, validity is how accurate the score is. That is to say, do the tests measure what they are supposed to be measuring for. There are numerous ways to access the validity of a test, but for this we will look at the content validity. Simply, do the tested variables factor into what is being tested