Respiratory System Analysis

Decent Essays
The respiratory system changes in many ways as one ages. These gradual changes begin at age twenty to thirty (Miller, 2015, p. 443) and function starts to weaken at age forty (El-Kader, and El-Den Ashmawy, 2013, p. 15). Changes occur in the upper respiratory structures, chest wall and musculoskeletal structures, and lung structures and function. The upper respiratory structures in the nose become less supportive, due to less connective tissue, and smaller, because of decreased blood flow (Miller, 2015, p. 443). Also, degenerative changes in the submucosal glands of the nasopharynx produce thicker mucus (Miller, 2015, p. 443). Cough and gag reflex are decreased (Miller, 2015, p. 443). Because of chest wall and musculoskeletal changes, elderly spend more energy on breathing. This occurs as a consequence of chest wall stiffness, weakened muscles, and changes in the shape of the chest (Miller, 2015, p. 444). The lungs become less elastic and smaller, the alveoli enlarge and thin out, the pulmonary artery becomes stiffer, wider, and thicker, the pulmonary capillaries decrease and have less blood flow, and the mucosal bed thickens (Miller, 2015, p. 445). Elastic recoil diminishes and can cause air trapping and less gas exchange (Miller, 2015, p. 445). Due to changes, elderly do not always respond in a compensatory manner and can have mental changes instead (Miller, 2015, p. 445). Nursing interventions for the respiratory system comprises of promoting respiratory wellness and preventing lower respiratory…show more content…
Name a specific nursing intervention related to smoking cessation.
2. How would you implement and evaluate the intervention?

El-Kader, S., & El-Den Ashmawy, E. (2013). Aerobic Exercise Training and Incentive Spirometry Can Control Age-Related Respiratory Muscles Performance Changes in Elderly. European Journal of General Medicine, 10(1), 14-19.
Miller, C. A. (2015). Nursing for Wellness in Older Adults (7th ed., 443-459). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters
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