Role Of The 21st Century Public School Superintendent

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In corporate America, the expectation for a CEO is to increase profits and to project a positive public image for the corporation. The role of the 21st century public school Superintendent often mirrors that of a corporate CEO. The superintendent is responsible for a multi-million-dollar budget, the management of a large employee pool, and the expectations for high stakes profits are in the form of standardized assessment scores. Just as the CEO is expected to produce an increase in profits, the school Superintendent is accountable for, and is expected to produce, a yearly increase in test scores. Whittle (2005) contrasts the stability of CEOs in major corporations with the stability of superintendents in large urban school districts. …show more content…

Kentucky is worth examining as it has a vast rural area and as it was the first state to implement one of the most large-scale educational reforms in the country.

Purpose of Literature Review

The purpose of this Literature Review is to examine the literature related to the question: Does a relationship exist between school superintendent tenure and student academic success? Through this research, the researcher discovered that there is very little research on the topic. Moreover, the research that does exist is focused on large, urban districts. Thus, there is a gap in the literature as it relates to rural schools, such as many of those found in the state of Kentucky.

Development of the Superintendent as Instructional Leader

The role of the Superintendent has changed dramatically over the years. The office of superintendent as it is known today is much more recent in the history of education in America. Historically, the need for a school district superintendent rose with the growth and the changes in public schools in America. The first position known as school district superintendent was created in the late 1830s. By most accounts, “the very first district superintendents were appointed in Buffalo, New York and Louisville, Kentucky” (Grieder, Pierce, & Jordan, 1969).
By 1850, 13 city school districts had created this position (Kowalski, 2006).
This new position was necessary to accommodate the changing look of schools (Kowalski, 2006). The shift from

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