Ury, William, Brett, and Stephen, and Goldberg (44) argued that actors should instead focus on what they would like to do with their interests. Claims and disputes based on interests are usually easier to negotiate and are also less likely to become intractable. When the interest negotiations do not work, different parties in the dispute, i.e. the workers and management should consider using rights-based approaches such as mediation, and arbitration. Furthermore, the power-based approaches such as strikes should only be resolved for the few conflicts that cannot be resolved through either the rights-based or interest-based approaches. As such, the recommended system should resolve most of the disputes and issues at the interest level, least at the right level, and the least through the use of power options. Doing so will be considered effective for a number of reasons. Firstly, negotiating interests are usually considered to be less expensive compared to either adjudicating the rights or pursuing the power options. Secondly, depending on negotiating interests will usually increase the chances of gaining mutually satisfactory solutions, while the other two methods would lead to a win-lose situation, where not all the people involved would benefit from the resolution procedures, leading to long-term resentment. Thirdly, it is evident that relying more on the power-based approaches will lead to the losing side planning to get back on the other side, even when it is to the
Some of my favorite points that stuck with me throughout reading the first six chapters of The Actor and the Target are that fear makes us unable to act (p.31), that bad news is great news for the actor (p. 44) and that the target is waiting to be found (p.46).
Power is never linked to price, but always to value.” Power in negotiations can be perceived or real which affects the final negotiation outcome. Generally all disputants have some power to an extent which is used to achieve a favourable outcome. It is unlikely the power balance stays consistent, power shifts throughout the negotiation process. Knowing how the power works and how to use power to achieve desirable outcome is important for successful negotiations. The notion of parity in power is vital in relationships between the disputants. The parity in negotiation is when one party perceives that the other party can oppose any form of power with dissimilar or similar form of power (Lewicki and Saunders et al., 1997). Power parity means there will be a balance in power positioning to some extent. The two different objective powers involving in the bargaining process are power depending on the lack of dependence and role power (Staff, 2013). The first power parallels to a disputants BATNA (Best alternative to a negotiated agreement). Going into a negotiation with strong BATNA means the disputant is less dependent on the other parties in achieving the desired outcome compared to having a weaker alternative. The second power is linked with the positions, titles or roles which grant power simply because of the control or authority they possess. This is often found in hierarchical organisations. Apart from the objective powers there is possibility of
“What do you want to be when you grow up?” is a question that children get asked quite frequently. Most of the time, a child aims big and chooses an extravagant career, like an astronaut, a police officer, or a doctor. Obviously, it is impossible for a child to obtain one of those jobs at such a young age. However, acting in Hollywood is a possible career for a child. If a child is talented enough to be a star, then why not let them pursue their passion? While the life of being an actor in Hollywood seems like a dream to most children, fame comes with many terrible obstacles for some stars. Over the years, there has been a large debate on whether or not acting in Hollywood as a child is as picture-perfect as it seems. Hollywood is filled with tons of secrets. Why should a child be put into such an untrustworthy environment? Acting in Hollywood is in no way safe for children.
Traditional approaches to mediation assume that a conflict’s parties and a mediator share one compelling reason for initiating mediation: a desire to reduce,abate,or resolve a conflict.To this end,both sides may invest personnel,time,and resources in the mediation.This shared humanititarian interest maybe the only genuine reason in a few instances of mediation,but normally even this interest intertwines with other, less altruistic,
Disputes between individuals can be resolved through mediation, tribunals and courts are sought depending on the complexity and nature of the dispute. Their effectiveness in achieving justice for and between individuals to varying extents will be assessed by their ability to uphold notions of fairness, equality, access, timeliness, enforceability and resource efficiency.
I feel the labor relations system as currently constituted is effective for resolving disputes as long as both parties are committed to negotiating in good faith. Although, I feel the current system is effective a further explanation of the systems strengths and weaknesses will better explain the effectiveness of resolving disputes. It is in both the companies and the labor interest to negotiate with as little third party interaction to come up with an agreement. In times when there are disputes their different course of action that start from a least costly without giving up power in the decision to the possibility of becoming more costly to either party and give up the power in the decision. As discussed in the text when an organization and labor cannot come up with an agreement a third party may be asked to come in to negotiations to resolve a dispute which includes mediation, fact-finding, and interest arbitration.
Interest-based bargaining is a method in which it enables negotiators to realize that common interests exist and enables joint-problem solving to exist under a more traditional negotiation (Federal Mediation & Conciliation Services, n.d.). Whereas, distributive bargaining is when a fixed amount of resource exists, and because both parties want the same resources they must be divided and distributed among the two. This method is used when both parties do not foresee the need for a relationship to exist and the interaction is a one-time occurrence (Marzec, n.d.). When it came to the negotiations between the Union and the Company in this situation, an interest-based bargaining method was utilized. A relationship needed to be established between the two parties, because the potential for future negotiations to exist remains due to the nature of the two parties. Being able to realize that each side had common interests, it could enable an agreement to come together without either side having to give something
During our negotiation with D.G. Barnhouse (DGB), we intend to utilize an integrative bargaining strategy with management. Before coming to this conclusion, we weighed the advantages and disadvantages of a distributive approach, however, we eventually decided to take an integrative and predominantly interest based stance versus a position based stance in our negotiations after assessing internal and external environmental factors. In addition, we settled on this strategy because we ultimately believe that management and the union share at the very least, one fundamental common interest, which is the firm’s financial stability. That being said, even with our plans to use integrative bargaining, we still plan to negotiate assertively to achieve
The acting in this play is very virtuoso.There are some other performers in the play did stand out in the production. Jimmy Fernandez, one of the performers who played Mrs. Bumbrake by expressing his humorous attitude in his character in the production. Brian Frink is another performer that played Captain Stache (later known as Captain Hook) did show his swashbuckling side of a pirate and cowardly parts that he fears about the crocodile in later play. Also, Gabrielle Blackhurst is another performer that played Molly Aster (nee Darling later in the play) shows the altruistic, physically adept, and adventurous side in this play. She expresses her character who is willing to help Peter and the other boys and also her father on a mission to stop
Negotiation is one of the most common approaches used to make decisions and manage disputes. It is also the major building block for many other alternative dispute resolution procedures. According to Christopher W (2012), negotiation is the principal way that people redefine an old relationship that is not working to their satisfaction or establish a new relationship where none existed before. Because negotiation is such a common problem-solving process, it is in everyone 's interest to become familiar with negotiating dynamics and skills. This section is designed to identify what worked well and not well in the negotiation. In addition, to present strategies that generally makes the negotiation more efficient and improvement in the next
The second part of the method focuses on interests instead of positions. Interests refer to the result needed, while positions refer to that wanted. Again, this is a very intellectual concept to ideal conflict and negotiation. However, in a world where people always want more than enough, and where positions can be advantageous, this concept is seems to be unnecessary and even unfavourable. In the case of a victim' in conflict, one can usually bargain more than they need' for their damages. In the case of positions and power, an employee not acknowledging a CEO his/her power would not make a difference in the status of the two individuals and the potential outcome of the
Conflict or disagreement over the range of issues has become inherent aspect of modern organisational life. People from different cultural and education background work in an organisation. People working in an organisation may possess different goal and interest. People working in organisation may tend to different over a range of issues including organisational politics, organisational procedure, personal preference or political preference. It is also argued that conflict is essential characteristics of organisational life. Role of manager is paramount with regard to negotiating the conflict that arises in organisational life (http://www.sagepub.com/). Often lack of
Beyond negotiation and mediation, there are a number of approaches that decrease the personal control the people involved have over the dispute outcome, increase the involvement of external decision makers, and rely increasingly on win-lose and either-or decision-making techniques. These approaches can be divided into public and private, and legal and extralegal.
Drama is not just consisting by the actors ' dialogue and movements; there is also a very special consist part is chorus. Chorus usually plays a pretty important role in drama, and it also has different functions in different storyline, and promotes the process of the story. Its location is irreplaceable. This paper will take the scripts, which are Lysistrata (Aritophanes) and Despatch (Angie Farrow, 2015) as the example, comparative analysis the role of the chorus in this two scripts. It will discuss the narrative device of the ‘chorus’ functions. The way to help the story of the play telling by chorus and allow the narrative to unfold will be discussed in this paper, too.