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S. N. 1 Lab Report

Satisfactory Essays
As discussed in lecture, the determining factors of a substitution reaction is likely to occur in either S_N 1 or S_N 2 by: substrates, leaving group, strength of the nucleophile, and the type of solvent.

When conducting the S_N 1 portion of the experiment, the solvent used was 1% silver nitrate in ethanol solution (〖AgNO〗_3). This solvent is polar protic. This is the best type of solvent needed for an S_N 1 reaction because the hydrogen atom is positively charged while the nucleophile is negatively charged achieving a hydrogen bond. Two factors that contributed to the rate of reaction for S_N 1 are stability of the carbocation and the leaving group departure. The more stable the carbocation, the faster the reaction generates and the better the leaving group, it creates a carbocation faster, which in turn leads to a
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The following six of the nine alkyl halides produced precipitates at room temperature: 2-bromobutane, t-butyl chloride, crotyl chloride, bromocyclohexane, bromocyclopentane, and benzyl chloride. All of these alkyl halides reacted in room temperature because they were either secondary or tertiary carbons except for crotyl chloride. These types of structures (tertiary) are favored in the case of S_N 1 while secondary can undergo either S_N 1 or S_N 2. The only primary carbon that reacted quickly was crotyl chloride because it is an allylic substrate, which can undergo S_N 1. On the other hand the three remaining alkyl halides did not react at room temperature: 1-chlorobutane, 2-chlorobutane, and bromobenzene. These three alkyl halides were then heated at 80℃. 1-chlorobutane’s alpha carbon is primary, so heat is needed in order to create more collision resulting in a reaction. 2-chlorobutane and 2-bromobutane have similar structures, but the latter reacted in room temperature because Br is a better leaving group than Cl. Lastly, bromobenzene did not react even after adding heat
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