Compare: Chromatins are compacted together to create chromosomes, essentially chromosomes are compacted chromatins as they both carry genetic information in the appearance of genes. Contrast: Chromosomes are a condensed chromatin fibers that are higher up in the order of DNA. Chromatins are composed of nucleosomes and are lower in the order of DNA. Chromosomes are compact, thick and coiled while chromatin is comprised of thin and long fibers that are uncoiled in their structure unlike chromosomes. Chromosomes are paired together while chromatin are unpaired. Chromatin is found everywhere in the cell while chromosomes are usually found when it comes to cell division.
2. (3 pts) Compare and contrast diploid and haploid cells (either structurally or functionally) Compare: Both diploid and haploid cells contain genetic information within their structures and have at least one sex chromosomes within their makeup. Both haploid and diploid cells undergo cell division such as mitosis or meiosis in order to produce these haploid and diploid cells. Contrast: Diploid cells contain two sets of chromosomes (2n), which is the total number of chromosomes an individual species has. Haploid cells have only one complete set of chromosomes which is half the number of chromosomes that diploid cells have. Haploids only have one sex chromosomes and are reproductive cells, meanwhile diploid cells have two sex chromosomes and are usually not reproductive cells like haploid cells. Diploid
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The process, during which the germ cells are generated is called meiosis. It represents nature's solution to the problem of chromosome doubling that would occur, if two diploid cells, i.e. two cells with a double set of chromosomes would fuse. Accordingly does meiosis produce haploid germ cells, with maternal and paternal germ cell fusing at fertilization and thus generating a
At prophase the chromosomes become condense to become visible and the membrane begins to break down. The chromosomes line up along the centre of the equator during metaphase. The chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite poles during anaphase. In telophase these separate chromatids
Mitosis and meiosis are similar in several ways and different in others. The similarities include that both processes involve IPMAT. IPMAT is interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. The parent cells are diploid. They both end with cytokinesis. In Metaphase and Metaphase II, the sister chromatids line up along the center. Then in Anaphase and Anaphase II, these chromatids are split and pulled towards the centrosomes. The differences are that mitosis consists of 1 division while meiosis consists of 2. Four genetically different, haploid sex cells are the products of meiosis and 2 identical, diploid somatic cells from mitosis. Mitosis occurs in all organisms except viruses and meiosis only occurs in plants, animals, and fungi.
A) Meiosis consists of two cell divisions and is broken up into Meiosis I and Meiosis II. At the beginning of the Cell Cycle, in this case there are four chromatids each from the homologous pairs being A, a, B, b. This is the Diploid number (4) meaning it is 2 times the haploid number that will be seen at the end of meiosis II. During the S phase of interphase, the chromatids replicate and reach the end of G2 phase. Now starting meiosis, during the first stage of prophase I the chromosomes condense and pair up through synapsis with their sister chromatids creating AA, aa, BB, bb. After they pair up they go through a process called crossing over, where the homologous chromosomes share a piece of their genetic material with each other. Crossing over allows for the genetic diversity of chromosomes. Now there are four homologous chromosomes Aa, Aa, Bb, Bb, each containing heterozygous alleles because the sister chromatids exchanged genetic information with their homologous pair. During late prophase I, spindle fibers being to form where they will later attach to a homologous chromosomes centromere. The next stage is Metaphase I. During metaphase I, the homologous pairs line up at the metaphase plate, also known to be the center of the cell. The homologous pairs form a tetrad which is considered a group of four homologous chromosomes. These homologous chromosomes orient themselves randomly, which is know as the process of independent
Mitosis is the process of duplicating nuclear material one cell becomes two cells. A cell contains 46 chromosomes, this is known as diploid. This process involves prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis ensures the continuation of the organism and helps the body build and repair. Meiosis on the other hand is for production of haploid cells, 23 chromosomes, that together with another human, new organisms are created.
Asexual reproduction only involves one parent. They split their cell in half. Sexual reproduction involves two parents and they each have one cell (either an egg of sperm) which gets put together to have an infant. The egg and sperm usually have 23 chromosomes. SO when an infant is born, it has 46 chromosomes.
1) How are stem cells different from normal cells? Why are these differences important for medical research?
Similar to mitosis, the homologue pair move line up across the equator and microtubules bind to them. This process is also distinct from mitosis because in mitosis the spindles bind to the chromatids, but in meiosis I, the spindles bind to the pairs (Khan Academy). Once the homologue pairs are in position, the microtubules will pull the pairs apart in what is called Anaphase I. Once this phase is completed, telophase I is initiated. This is where the cell actually divides. Cytokinesis, which is the actual separation of the cell, occurs and forms two daughter cells (Khan Academy). These two cells are called haploid cells because they have only one set of chromosomes whereas the original cell was a diploid cell because of the homologue pairs.
Homologous chromosomes are similar but not identical. Each carries the same genes in the same order, but the alleles for each trait may not be the same. In garden peas, for example, the gene for pod color on the maternal chromosome might be the yellow allele; the gene on the homologous paternal chromosome might be the green allele. One chromosome of each homologous pair comes from the mother (called a maternal chromosome) and one comes from the father (paternal chromosome). Homologous chromosomes are similar but not identical. Each carries the same genes in the same order, but the alleles for each trait may not be the same. In diploid organisms, the genome is composed of homologous chromosomes. One chromosome of each homologous pair comes from
Chromosomes contain the genetic information that must be passed to each new generation of cells. Chromosomes are what you pass on to your children to make them who they are, it’s the DNA of a cell.
1 G banding techniques enhances the basic structures of chromosomes. The chromosomes consists of 8 histones proteins molecules , each of which is wrapped around by DNA of 146bp long to form a repeating units called nucleosomes, then successive nucleosomes are arranged to form a structure similar to that of beads of a string which again coil themselves to form chromatin fiber. Chromosome package is form when chromatin fiber are further loop and coiled.
Chromatin- a collection of separate structures called Chromosomes. Within the nucleus the DNA is organized along with proteins into Chromatin. During Mitosis, the chromosomes condense into what is known as Chromosomes, which allows the genetic information of the previous cell to be passed on.