Essay on Spectroscopy

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Spectroscopy is the study of energy levels in atoms or molecules, using absorbed or emitted electromagnetic radiation. There are many categories of spectroscopy eg. Atomic and infrared spectroscopy, which have numerous uses and are essential in the world of science. When investigating spectroscopy four parameters have to be considered; spectral range, spectral bandwidth, spectral sampling and signal-to-noise ratio, as they describe the capability of a spectrometer. In the world of spectroscopy there are many employment and educational opportunities as the interest in spectroscopy and related products is increasing. However Spectroscopy is not a recent development, as it has been
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History of Spectroscopy =======================

Spectroscopy has been used as a method of quantitative chemical analysis before the beginning of the twentieth century. Spectroscopy started in 1666 when Sir Isaac Newton passed rays of light from the sun through a glass prism and observed the colours of the visible spectrum, another great breakthrough concerning spectroscopy was the suggestion of transition between energy levels within atoms as the source of spectral lines was great contribution made by Niels Bohr in 1913. At the end of the nineteenth century, spectroscopy was limited to the absorption, emission, and the scattering of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared electromagnetic radiation. However, during the twentieth century, spectroscopy was extended to include other forms of electromagnetic radiation including photo spectroscopy e.g X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves, as well as particle spectroscopy.

Functions and Description of a spectrometer

[IMAGE] Fig 1. Schematic diagram of a spectrometer employing photomultiplier as detector.

A spectrometer usually shows pointed distinct features, instead of curving wavelengths; the sharp structure used is particularly obvious when the substance investigated includes atoms in the gas stage. The
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