Stereotype Threat And Arousal : Effects On Women 's Math Performance

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O’Brien, L.T., & Crandall, C.S. (2003) Stereotype threat and arousal: effects on women’s math performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 782-789.
i. EXPERIMENTAL ii. The study was experimental because: 1) the researchers did manipulate the independent variables, and 2) Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. iii. The purpose of the study was to determine if increased stimulation due to perceived stereotype biases affected performance in critical thinking. More specifically, the researchers were interested in whether participants, women in particular, performances were more negatively affected due to a perceived favoring of previous outcomes based upon gender stereotypes.

iv. Independent/Dependent
v. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: Gender; Stereotype threat inclusion and/or omission; Test difficulty vi. DEPENDENT VARIABLE: Performance scores.

vii. Gender – whether there was a difference in performance between genders; used for comparison between male and female participants viii. Stereotype threat inclusion/omission: whether including or omitting information that could potentially indicate gender bias would affect performance. ix. Test difficulty: variations in difficult and time allowance per test.
1. This is more considered a constant variable as the tests and time allowed were identical between those who did and did not receive the stereotype threat letter.
x. Performance score: the outcome of performance results.

xi. Participants were

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