“You cannot be a humanist unless you are a feminist. You either advocate equality for all or you are a misanthrope” (Michael A. Sherlock). From women’s suffrage to abortion laws feminism has evolved with contemporary battles and a variety of approaches. The
Towards the end of the twentieth century, feminist women in America faced an underlying conflict to find their purpose and true meaning in life. “Is this all?” was often a question whose answer was sought after by numerous women reaching deeper into their minds and souls to find what was missing from their life. The ideal second-wave feminist was defined as a women who puts all of her time into cleaning her home, loving her husband, and caring for her children, but such a belief caused these women to not only lose their identity within her family but society as well. The emotions that feminist women were feeling at this time was the internal conflict that caused for social steps to be taken in hopes of
Intersectionality underscores that it is impossible to consider gender in isolation from other forms of difference. Critically discuss the significance of this, including its implications for feminism. Refer to at least 3 readings in the unit read from weeks 1-6.
Second Wave Feminism has a direct relation to art, as the movement and its creations were directly connected to the social problems of the times. As with most modern art, artists usually turn to creating works to express their problems with society, and this is what feminists did. As the suffragist movements with First Wave Feminism were a great success, and women did have the same legal rights as men, they still interpreted society has seeing them as the lesser gender. Thus, Second Wave Feminists attempted to protests the firm norms that society expected from them. Therefore, works that society say as vile or surprising, such as Yoko Ono’s protest in Japan, where she wore clothes with parts of her
The women’s movement began in 1848 at a meeting where both men and women signed a Declaration of Sentiments, specifically ordering equality within workplaces and education, aiding this new movement. In the 1960s also known as the second wave of the women’s movement, the book “The Feminine Mystique” by Betty Friedan was written. The book encouraged women to take part of this new-found motion, advancing with three important issues. The first being, JFK’s Commission on the Status of Women, followed by the National Organization for Women (NOW), and “The Pill”. The Commission on the Status of Women, created in 1961, wanted to further the equality of women in six areas. The National Organization for Women (NOW) was created in 1966 and focused on
The first-wave of feminism focused more on the rights of women in the eyes of the law, while the second-wave primarily looked towards women in the workplace and the home. Friedan’s book claims that women “have won the battle for suffrage but little else.” Second wave feminism changed America by passing laws that gave women equal rights within the workforce, such as the law proposed by Virginia Representative Howard Smith to put a prohibition on gender discrimination within the Civil Rights Act. (The 1960s-70s American Feminist Movement: Breaking Down Barriers for Women). In this way second-wave feminism helped to further the revolutionizing actions which originated within the first
The idea of women being equal to men has been debated for a very long time. Even when civilizations were just starting, most women were treated very differently from men. When women started fighting against this oppression they were called feminists. Feminism can be separated into three waves. The first wave of feminism was from the mid 1800s to the early 1900s. The second wave was from the 1960s to the 1980s. The third wave of feminism started in the 1990s, but its end is unclear. Some people believe it has ended and the fourth wave of feminism has started, but others believe it continues today. The different waves have been very different in some aspects, but very similar in others. The main differences between the first and third wave of feminism are what they fought for, how they protested, and society’s reaction to their cause.
Any given person can define feminism in a different way. Some view it as a women’s movement for women, by women and against men. It can also be hard to distinguish the different types of feminism when the more radical, outspoken people or organizations can overshadow the rest. In general, feminism is another way in which to view things, another lens in which to see the world. It is another platform for people to express themselves as whole individuals and become a voice for others that may otherwise remain unheard. Feminism as a whole takes a look at social constructs and gender norms and begins to deconstruct them to create an environment that is equal and accepting of all persons. In the second wave of feminism, many women began to break out of the roles as housewives and mothers and speak up for equality. Gloria Steinem is among many of the influential women who took the world by storm with their radical ideas of feminism and challenge the ideals that society had set forth for post-war women of the time.
First and second wave feminists succeeded in legal and social rights. In addition, they achieved the right to vote, higher education, and the right to their own body. Although, third wave feminists obtained these rights, they differentiated from focusing on laws and political processes like first and second wave feminists did. Instead, third wave feminists strived for individualism and diversity. Unlike labeling each other as feminists, the third wave departed from this idea and sought diversity. Third wave became more open for women of all colors, religions, sexual preferences, and ethnicities.
Prior to Loobeek’s paper, I did not know that there were three different forms or ‘waves’ of feminism, I thought it was one category. Now that I understand the three waves, I can more easily delineate between them. I remember learning in history class about Susan B. Anthony, a women’s rights advocate; her actions would be considered first-wave feminism. I remember talking about women’s right to get an abortion; which would be considered part of second-wave feminism. I also remember topics on the fight for lesbians to become welcome in society; which would be considered an important part of third-wave feminism. I think that it is in a way horrifying that Katniss is the head of her household and that she shows dominance over her mother. The reason
Talking about the British Women’s rights that focused on first wave feminism, the aim of women and also political changes affected the political lives of the women and paved the way for the future. Those who argue for or against the role of activism in the aims and goals of women are usually separated by the issue on whether women got the vote due to their struggle to gain that vote or their contribution to the war effort.
Feminism has been a prominent part in American literature since the late Nineteenth century. In almost every form of media today, there are female characters who are leaders, independent, and do not conform to the submissive image some individuals have of women. The first authors to introduce heroines of independent nature were Gilman, Chopin, and Wharton. They wrote stories about heroines who had their own ideas and wanted their own voice, expressed their own sexuality, and established their independence through re-marrying.
The word feminism originated in the 1800’s from the French word “feminisme”. So what is feminism exactly? Feminism is usually defined as an active desire to change women’s position in society (Kolmar pg.27). There are many ways that feminism can be described as it is a number of theories, social movements, cultural and political movements. These movements are shedding light to the inequalities and equal rights for women and also equality for everyone. Feminism is a way for women to be heard and to fight for their right for equality. “It is feminism that recognizes individual diversity, and freedom, and equality, defined through and beyond north/ west and south / east dialogues” (Hooks pg.47). There are considered two waves of feminism or three according to who you talk to. The first-wave feminism focuses on power and women’s suffrage this wave of feminism also puts the focus on absolute rights. The second-wave feminism developed its own epistemological practices in the process of consciousness raising, a model for generating knowledge from the authority of individual women’s experience (Tong pg.55). Women in the second-wave also used their academic knowledge when discussing feminism to bring more knowledge about the topic of inequality. With the third-wave feminism I start to see more openness to allowing more women in these movements. I start to see how more lesbian women and women of color are more active in this wave. I however believe that third-wave
Feminism is defined by Bell Hooks as a movement and ideology intended to end sexist oppression. The recession and intensification is classified as occurring in waves, and this characterization parallels the wave feminist movements tend to crash over society. For the scope of this paper, the focus will be centered on American feminism and the conditions associated with and imposed upon the participants. Although the first wave of feminism was considered complete with the granting of women’s suffrage, feminism has evolved with the times to encapsulate the issues facing the women of the time. While the fundamental premise of each feminist wave is the desire to overcome sexist oppression and gender-based inequalities, intergenerational conflicts exist between the “new” and “old” feminists. Feminism is plagued by opposing values as opponents believe it is too extreme, yet advocates believe it is not extreme enough. The internal and external strife leads to an aversion among the younger generation when assuming the identity. These conflicts are counterproductive to the renunciation of misogyny as they divide the movement meant to unify women. Deborah Siegel’s Sisterhood, Interrupted: From Radical Women to Grrls Gone Wild examines the chasms present in the intergenerational debate of feminism as they defined the feminist movement.
Under pressure because of the staggering statistics, in 1961 President Kennedy appointed a Presidential Commission on the Status of Women to study opportunities and barriers for women in American society (Organizing Their Lives: Women, Work, and Family, 1950-2000). It initiated the feminist movement of the 1960’s and 1970’s. Women were already working, but were hostages to society’s expectations. The following was the general consensus of many women of the last half of the twentieth century; “Personal is highly political; our individual freedom in organizing our households, our families, our work lives, our sex lives, and our reproductive lives is profoundly shaped by the nation’s public policies” (Organizing Their Lives: Women, Work, and Family, 1950-2000).