Summary of Primacy of Culture by Francis Fukuyama Essay

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THE PRIMACY OF CULTURE
By Francis Fukuyama

Democracy's Future –

Francis Fukuyama argues that for any new ideology or political trend to emerge that rival those of liberal democracy, it requires the precursor of developments at the level of civic society and culture. Accordingly, he sees the only civic society, and culture that seems poised to do so is Asia. Fukuyama bases his judgment on the claim that for the consolidation of democracy, there must exist four levels of change: On the first level is Ideology, followed by Institutions, then Civil Society, and finally, Culture. At the level of ideological change, believes about the merits and demerits of democracy and its encumberent market structure, must first be rationalized.
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This belief is primarily due to the fact that groups practicing communistic types of ideologies in the former communist world have not done much else but slow down their area's transition to now dominant capitalism. These individuals apparently attain their power through old-school supporters who were communist-elite, and have stakes in the communist system. While these ideologies lack global appeal, Fukuyama leaves open the possibility that one or more of them might continue to expand within their respective areas or "regional spheres" as he calls them. With all three of these ideologies discredited in some way or another, Fukuyama goes on to present Asian paternalistic authoritarianism as the most serious contender to liberal democracy in the realm of global ideologies. He starts by recognizing the obvious drawback; Asian authoritarianism is also a regional phenomenon. He then immediately proceeds to list the accolades of this ideology, beginning with the fact that it has forced Westerners to confront flaws and weaknesses in their societies, something that he says none of the other contenders have done. Apparently, Asians are also the only ones to master the technological world, and create capitalistic societies that are competitive if not better than those in the West. While these views show reveal an evident, yet acute amount of bias, there is a great amount of truth in them. The most interesting and
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