T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is an aggressive haematological tumour, caused by the malignant transformation of T-cell progenitors. The intrathymic T-cell development constitutes the pathophysiological framework consisting of the basic mechanisms that lead to pathogenesis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Haydu, 2014).
a) Mode of action of the drugs
This drug acts by inhibiting the enzyme xanthine oxidase, which is required for the oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine, leading to the formation of uric acid. Inhibition of uric acid metabolism results in an increase in the quantities of both hypoxanthine and xanthine. This drug is used to handle hyperuricemia in some disease such as goat and …show more content…
Furthermore, It counteracts the side effects produced by some of the chemotherapeutic drugs. It also counteracts the antiemetic effects of 5-HT3receptor antagonists (Harousseau, 2006). (However, the exact method of Dexamethasone’s action still is unknown)
This is a mitotic inhibitor that acts by binding to the tubulin dimmers, thus blocking the assembly of microtubule structures, which results in the inhibition of cell mitosis in the metaphase. It targets all the rapidly dividing cells thus inhibiting both cancerous cells and the bone marrow (Graf, 1996).
Daunorubicin is an anti-tumour drug (anthrocycline), which is originated from streptomyes coeruleorubidus, which is mainly used for acute non lymphocytic Leukaemia.
It mechanism of action involves the intercalation of DNA, thus inhibiting macromolecular biosynthesis. It inhibits the enzyme topoisomerase II, which is responsible for relaxing the supercoils in DNA. It stabilises the topoisomerase II complex after it has un-winded the DNA for replication. This complex prevents the two strands from coming together and sealing, thus preventing replication and resulting in the induction of apoptosis (Pang, 2013).
Pegylated L-asparaginase (Oncaspor)
The asparaginase enzyme decreases the level of asparagines in the blood stream by breaking down of L-asparagine into L-aspartic acid and ammonia. It
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This form of therapy assists with eliminating water molecules within the urine by the binding of V2 receptors, increasing water reabsorption. This results for effectiveness can be determined by the current urine output, hopefully decreasing.
Cladribine is an adenosine deaminase inhibitor. Adenosine deaminase, an enzyme involved in purine metabolism, plays an important role in DNA and RNA synthesis through the turnover of nucleic acids in tissues. Cladribine is a well-known purine nucleoside analog which interferes with adenosine deaminases, thus used for treating lymphoproliferative disorders, such as hairy cell leukemia (HCL) .
This drug works by damaging the DNA in cancer cells and stopping them from multiplying. It binds together the strands of DNA so that cells can’t grow and divide (Cancer Research UK, 2015).
It is also composed of poring proteins: can regulate molecules entering or leaving the cell.
Vincristine is a cell-cycle specific chemotherapy drug that target the structural protein tubulin during mitosis in cell division. The anticancer property of vincristine is a result of its ability to inhibit cell division during early mitosis. The drug binds to tubulin monomers preventing the formation of spindle microtubules and therefore alter the microtubules structure and function resulting in chromosomes not separating. Vincristine stops the separation of the duplicated chromosome to form two daughter cells and hence prevent cell division (metaphase arrest).
Systemic treatment is regularly utilized as a part of conjunction with different modalities that constitute "nearby treatment" (i.e. medications whose adequacy is limited to the anatomic territory where they are connected) for growth, for example, radiation treatment, surgery, and/or hyperthermia treatment. The adequacy of chemotherapy relies on upon the sort of tumor and the stage. The general viability ranges from being corrective for a few growths, for example, some leukemias, to being inadequate, for example, in some mind tumors,to being unnecessary in others, as most non-melanoma skin cancers. Clinical information has indicated docetaxel to have cytotoxic movement against bosom, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate, liver, renal, gastric, head and neck tumors, and melanoma. In hormone unmanageable prostate growth docetaxel enhances future and general life quality. Docetaxel has a place with a class of chemotherapy medications called plant alkaloids. Plant alkaloids are 5produced using plants. The vinca alkaloids are produced using the periwinkle plant. The taxanes are produced using the bark of the Pacific Yew tree. Vinca alkaloids and taxanes are otherwise called antimicrotubule operators. Treatment with docetaxel has the particular result of expanding survival time in patients with certain sorts of tumor. Some clinical trials show median survival times to be expanded by just three months,
The supplement urges the body to discharge a specific hormone that secures against sort 2 diabetes. It can likewise diminish the development of greasy plaque in the dividers of the liver and corridors. This diminishes a man's odds of misery from genuine liver conditions, for example, cirrhosis and growth.
The accumulation of glycogen in certain organs and tissues, especially muscles, impairs their ability to function normally. The drug used in the movie can be used to help break up the sugar the builds up in the muscles and organs over time. The drug is most effective when injected into infants who have been diagnosed with pompe disease. By giving the drug to infants it can be used to help manage and control pompe disease their whole life. This drug is still used today and is extremely effective when used on
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia is a scary disease. The term “acute” means the disease can quickly spread and progress quickly and can prove fatal in months if left untreated. “Lymphocytic” simply means that it develops from immature forms of lymphocytes. Also known as Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or ALL for short, it is a type of cancer that starts from the early form of white blood cells called lymphocytes in the bone marrow. ALL is the most common form of cancer in children, though adults can get it as well. For children, treatment results in a good chance of a cure. Adults have a significantly smaller chance of a cure with ALL. ALL generally invades the blood very quickly and has the potential to spread to other body parts such as the spleen,
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer that is defined by permeation of the bone marrow, blood, and other tissues by proliferative, clonal, abnormally differentiated, and occasionally poorly differentiated treated cells of the hematopoietic system(1). The dynamic interaction between leukemia cells and the bone marrow microenvironment is one of the characteristics of leukemia. The important components of the bone marrow environment include tumor cells, extracellular matrix, non-tomur cells (fibroblasts, stromal cells, immune cells) and hypoxia(2). It is well- known in solid tumors that the excessive proliferation of tumor cells causes a severe hypoxia, which can lead to tumor progression. In the hematologic malignancies, there is the
Acute lymphocytic leukemia is also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia or ALL. This disease is primarily when the white blood cell, WBC, making tissue releases too many undeveloped lymphocytes. The immature lymphocytes then collect in lymph tissues. The tissues swell which makes it harder for the bone marrow to produce other blood cells. If the bone marrow cannot function properly the red blood cell, RBC, count decreases causing anemia. The bone marrow also cannot create the platelets needed to cause clots, therefore resulting in the body bleeding and bruising more easily. The lymphocytes can also invade other organs, impairing their ability to function properly. ALL accounts for twenty-five percent of cancers affecting children under the
Cancer is a deadly disease of uncontrolled cell division and has the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body and affects normal functioning of the vital organs. Nowadays cancer is considered as leading cause of human death in all over the world and its burden will continue to increase due to continuous growth and ageing of world’s population (Chandra, 2012). Leukemia is one of the major types of cancer, affecting significant segments of the human population, especially children and adolescents. Based on diagnosis the most commonly forms of leukemia are acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Goswami et al., 2014). Previously, it has been well documented
Promising Agent: Our promising agent is a rational drug because we know the target and are designing a drug to target that specific protein. The protein we are targeting is the Sirtuin 1 protein. This drug works on a molecular level by decreasing the amount of protein SIRT1 found in kidney epithelial cells. SIRT1 has been found to prevent cystic epithelial apoptosis, meaning it prevents cells from dying that cause the formation of cysts in the kidneys. By inhibiting SIRT1, apoptosis will be activated and increased, and cystic cells will die, which will slow the growth of existing cysts, and prevent the growth of new cysts in the kidneys, and possibly the liver, and other organs this disease can sometimes affect.