T Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

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Introduction
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is an aggressive haematological tumour, caused by the malignant transformation of T-cell progenitors. The intrathymic T-cell development constitutes the pathophysiological framework consisting of the basic mechanisms that lead to pathogenesis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Haydu, 2014).

a) Mode of action of the drugs
Allopurinol
This drug acts by inhibiting the enzyme xanthine oxidase, which is required for the oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine, leading to the formation of uric acid. Inhibition of uric acid metabolism results in an increase in the quantities of both hypoxanthine and xanthine. This drug is used to handle hyperuricemia in some disease such as goat and
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Furthermore, It counteracts the side effects produced by some of the chemotherapeutic drugs. It also counteracts the antiemetic effects of 5-HT3receptor antagonists (Harousseau, 2006). (However, the exact method of Dexamethasone’s action still is unknown)

Vincristine
This is a mitotic inhibitor that acts by binding to the tubulin dimmers, thus blocking the assembly of microtubule structures, which results in the inhibition of cell mitosis in the metaphase. It targets all the rapidly dividing cells thus inhibiting both cancerous cells and the bone marrow (Graf, 1996).

Daunorubicin
Daunorubicin is an anti-tumour drug (anthrocycline), which is originated from streptomyes coeruleorubidus, which is mainly used for acute non lymphocytic Leukaemia.
It mechanism of action involves the intercalation of DNA, thus inhibiting macromolecular biosynthesis. It inhibits the enzyme topoisomerase II, which is responsible for relaxing the supercoils in DNA. It stabilises the topoisomerase II complex after it has un-winded the DNA for replication. This complex prevents the two strands from coming together and sealing, thus preventing replication and resulting in the induction of apoptosis (Pang, 2013).

Pegylated L-asparaginase (Oncaspor)
The asparaginase enzyme decreases the level of asparagines in the blood stream by breaking down of L-asparagine into L-aspartic acid and ammonia. It
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