Essay about The Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV)

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The Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing algorithm is a routing protocol designed for ad hoc mobile networks. AODV is capable of both unicast and multicast routing. It is an on demand algorithm, meaning that it builds routes between nodes only as desired by source nodes. It maintains these routes as long as they are needed by the sources. Additionally, AODV forms trees which connect multicast group members. The trees are composed of the group members and the nodes needed to connect the members. AODV uses sequence numbers to ensure the freshness of routes. It is loop-free, self-starting, and scales to large numbers of mobile nodes.

AODV builds routes using a route request / route reply query cycle. When a source node desires a
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As long as the route remains active, it will continue to be maintained. A route is considered active as long as there are data packets periodically travelling from the source to the destination along that path. Once the source stops sending data packets, the links will time out and eventually be deleted from the intermediate node routing tables. If a link break occurs while the route is active, the node upstream of the break propagates a route error (RERR) message to the source node to inform it of the now unreachable destination(s). After receiving the RERR, if the source node still desires the route, it can reinitiate route discovery.

Multicast routes are set up in a similar manner. A node wishing to join a multicast group broadcasts a RREQ with the destination IP address set to that of the multicast group and with the 'J'(join) flag set to indicate that it would like to join the group. Any node receiving this RREQ that is a member of the multicast tree that has a fresh enough sequence number for the multicast group may send a RREP. As the RREPs propagate back to the source, the nodes forwarding the message set up pointers in their multicast route tables. As the source node receives the RREPs, it keeps track of the route with the freshest sequence number, and beyond that the smallest hop count to the next multicast group member. After the specified discovery period, the source node will unicast a Multicast Activation (MACT) message to its selected
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