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The American Cancer Society: A Case Study

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Cancer is defined by The American Cancer Society (2015) as a compilation of diseases that consist of more than one hundred different types of cases. Each of these cases has something in common; that some of the cells in the body start to become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably. These affected cells have the capability to spread into nearby tissues and eventually affecting the whole body, causing serious illness and death.

Figure 1: How cancer starts (Cancer Council Australia, 2015)

The Cancer Council Australia (2015) states that cells which have cancerous characteristics (forms tumors, however leukemia is an exception) but do not transmit to other regions of the body are known as to be benign, i.e. the cells are not considered threatening.
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Individuals who consume tobacco products or who are often in the vicinity of second-hand smoke have an increased risk getting cancer as tobacco and second-hand smoke contains many substances that damage DNA.

The World Health Organization has reported alcohol as a Group 1 carcinogen stating, "There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages in humans. …Alcoholic beverages are carcinogenic to humans." The risk is higher when individuals consume more, and it is even higher for those who consume alcohol and tobacco. It is safer to only drink in moderate amounts, meaning up to one drink per day for females and up to two drinks per day for male.

Roughly 35% of cancer deaths are linked to obesity, diet, and physical inactivity. In the United States, obesity is linked with the development of many cases of cancer and is a factor in about 17% of all cancer deaths. Physical inactivity is believed to contribute to cancer risk not only through its effect on body weight but also through negative effects on immune system and endocrine system. Diets that are low in vegetables, fruits and whole grains, and high in processed or red meats are also linked with a number of
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