The Cardiovascular System Of The Heart

1361 WordsApr 3, 20176 Pages
The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, which is a muscular pumping device, and vessels called arteries, veins, and capillaries (Silverthorn, D.U, et al. 2016). The heart pumps blood around a closed unit of vessels as it passes through circulations of the body. The human heart is a four-chambered muscular organ. The heart is enclosed in a pericardial sac that is lined with the parietal layers of a serous membrane (Silverthorn, D.U, et al. 2016). There are three layers of tissue that form the heart wall: the inner layer is the endocardium, the middle layer is the myocardium, and the outer layer of the heart wall is the epicardium (Silverthorn, D.U, et al. 2016). The internal cavity of the heart is divided into four chambers: the…show more content…
2016). Therefore, if the body deviates from homeostasis, then the heart will have to adapt so the body can return to normal states. The heart can increase its rate to deliver more oxygen and nutrients to cells in the body and remove more waste products, when the cells are working hard, allowing the body to eventually return to homeostasis (Silverthorn, D.U, et al. 2016). Congestive heart failure is a condition where the ability of the heart to pump has become less powerful (Mann, D. L., 2014). Therefore, the heart’s pumping function becomes insufficient to meet the needs of the body as the blood, containing the vital oxygen and nutrients, moves through the body and the heart at a slower rate than is required. There are many signs and symptoms of this condition, including fatigue and weakness, swelling in legs, ankles, feet and abdomen, rapid or irregular heartbeat, increased need to urinate at night, lack of appetite and nausea, and difficulty concentrating or decreased alertness (National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions & Royal College of Physicians of London, 2003). There are also many alterations in physiological function that occur during this condition. Congestive heart failure leads to the heart changing in physiology in order to meet the demands of the body. The chambers of the heart begin to stretch to acquire more blood or they start to become more stiff and thick. This
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