Brain drain, brain gain and brain circulation. These have been terms that have often been used simultaneously when discussing the movement of students, academics, and scholars as they left their homes to study abroad, when they remained in their host countries, and when they continued to work both at home and internationally. Brian circulation has been the term used to describe the movement and mobility of higher educated people around the globe. It has been an increasing phenomenon that has affected the socio-economic and socio-cultural progress of a society and a country, as well as the world (Teferra, 2005). Ozden and Schiff (2005) along with Stark et al. (1997) discussed the concept of brain circulation, a term they used in opposition …show more content…
Individuals gained from the study and the society gained from the knowledge and skills those students needed. This was matched by the time and money that was spent on them during their schooling and job training. Saxenian (2002, 2005) suggested that there were huge advantages to brain circulation because repatriates could be in their home country while they continued to maintain social and professional ties with their host country Scholars argued repeatedly about the effects of brain drain, brain gain, and brain circulation upon various countries involved in their studies. Some would question the authenticity of this circulation of talent (Harvey 2012; Saxenian, 2006). Harvey (2012) referenced Kapur and McHale (2005), who worried that the highest ranking scholars from Indian universities emigrated from India to the United States in higher numbers than those scholars who graduated with lesser degrees from lesser universities. In other words, they argued that the very top professionals tended to be the ones to leave. Others would say that this was not negative because innovation tended to flow to and from the host country and increased the resources and knowledge in the home country (Harvey, 2012). Perna et al. (2014) looked at the cost benefits for an emerging economy as scholars returned from international study. In Kazakhstan, a government-sponsored scholarship program (the Bolashak program) found that
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Migration of educated and skilled personnel from a country could cause brain drain since all the knowledgeable individuals would induce benefits to the host country leaving behind unskilled labor which is a frustration to the nation’s economic prosperity.
(Schaefer, 2011, pag 94). Even though the US government benefits from having high caliber human resources, this phenomenon not only affects the countries of origins but the US as well. This occurrence affects the minority and subordinate groups of the citizens, which limited their potential jobs and opportunities in high- tech careers paths. The brain drain is another sign of inadequate allocation of the assets around the globe, there are numerous third world countries, who are in desperately need for those physicians. But, they often choose to emigrate searching for superior financial opportunities and a better quality of life. The Us benefits from illegal immigration because it preserves the consumption growing and diversify the social hierarchies. In addition, there is a positive advantage for the employers, who can pay the lowest wages, which help them produce more and at a cheaper price for the
The reason behind this is that migration of highly skilled professionals in pursuit of better opportunities is a growing concern in the present world (Watts, 2002). There are questions that arise from such situations including the reasons that prompt such professionals to leave their countries and the consequences of immigration especially on the sector of social productivity (Zweig & Changgui, 2013). Additionally, there is also a concern regarding the policies that should be put in place to monitor the immigration of professionals into the United
The brain drain is not confined to physicians. Doctors represent only one quarter of health workers who made the move to the states in 1996, with nurses making up the majority
One key premise of Moretti 's book is that industry-focused brain hubs create thick labor markets with lots of specifically skilled workers. For example, take the software cluster in Silicon Valley, the life sciences cluster in Boston, or the financial or garment industry clusters in New York. These thick markets make it easier for a business in a targeted, innovation industry to acquire needed talent. Moreover, these brain hubs create human capital spillover as the proximity of highly specialized workers to each other helps the exchange of new and creative ideas.
What is a brain drain? It is the emigration of highly educated and skilled Canadians to the United States. Does Canada suffer from a Brain Drain? This is a question that economists have been trying to answer for a decade now and have conducted different studies resulting to different conclusions about this issue. There are some economists that believe that yes Canada is suffering from a brain drain if not now it will be soon, amongst those economists are Don DeVortez and Samuel Laryea who prepared a study of C.D howe Institute. They claimed that Brain Drain is real and is costing Canada Tax Payers millions of dollars. Then on the other side of the debate we have economists like John Helliwell, who
Brain drain involves the migration of skilled workers, professionals, and technicians to the United States, which then causes a drain of the crucial workers in their home countries. During the mid-twentieth century, a majority of immigrants came mainly from German and Great Britain. The brain drain is viewed by conflict theorists as a result of unequal distribution of world resources.
This term is typically used in a negative connotation, however, I believe that it is actually a positive thing. In a society as in any living organism, there has to be a cycle of life and death. A “Brain-Drain” acts as the virus that leads to the collapse of a failing country. If the citizens of a nation wish to leave it, then they should not only have the right to, they should be helped in doing so. A country has no special claim to those who grow up in it, a country must earn that right. Afghanistan and Iraq had their chance, and now we need to give these people their
The first approach in which Meyer’s argument against sweatshop labor challenges Brock’s argument on limiting brain drain is by highlighting the manipulation between options towards the targeted group, sweatshop workers and highly skilled personnel, respectively. With sweatshops, multinational corporations provide the surrounding communities in which they implement their factories two different options: (i) work for the harsh conditions and low pay offered or (ii) do not work at all or work in an even more hazardous environment. Naturally, as sweatshops will constantly offer options that is at least as good as their existing options or slightly better, the people will make the choice of working in sweatshops anticipating the costs they must
An October 2006 University of Iowa Civic Analysis Network report chronicles the process. What happens is, brain drain regions often encourage their elite high school students to seek out more prestigious colleges and universities in other parts of the nation—the old get out while the gettin’ is good routine. Sure some students stay, but many don’t. After college, the elite students from local institutions as well as those who’ve already left seek employment in the economically vibrant locations, leaving their homes talent-drained. While it’s perfectly natural for kids to move away, the problem for brain drained regions is that few talented people ever
“In 2006 to 2007, according to the data compiled by the Institute of International Education, 582,984 students from all over the world were enrolled in American colleges and universities in a wide range of fields” (Carter, Paragraph 2, 2008). The United States has the highest number of students who are coming to study abroad than any other countries. Each year, the number of international students coming to the United States to obtain degrees is increasing by thousands, and home countries of these students are primarily India, China and Korea, all located in the whole different continent. But what are the motives of students who are crossing the sea to study? Their goal of studying abroad is to experience diversity and to adapt attitudes
Migrations are caused by a variety of factors including economic, social and political factors. They are briefly described as under.
The fact of the matter is that a considerable amount of immigrants come here for higher education. “Half the Americans who won Nobel Prizes were born abroad. More than half of the people with PhDs working in America are immigrants.”(The Economist, 2006) These people find themselves in corporate giants like Sun Microsystems, Google, and Intel. When countries like China, actively try to attract back its ‘expats’ through various strategies, this brings the scenario of the “brain drain” to life. However, America has downplayed this fear. McKinsey Global Institute conducted a study of the off-shoring market and concluded that the number of service jobs moving offshore is much lower than expected. It was feared that jobs in services will follow manufacturing jobs that are now in the developing countries. Although competing