The Concept Of Brain Drain, Brain Gain And Brain Drain

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Brain drain, brain gain and brain circulation. These have been terms that have often been used simultaneously when discussing the movement of students, academics, and scholars as they left their homes to study abroad, when they remained in their host countries, and when they continued to work both at home and internationally. Brian circulation has been the term used to describe the movement and mobility of higher educated people around the globe. It has been an increasing phenomenon that has affected the socio-economic and socio-cultural progress of a society and a country, as well as the world (Teferra, 2005). Ozden and Schiff (2005) along with Stark et al. (1997) discussed the concept of brain circulation, a term they used in opposition…show more content…
Individuals gained from the study and the society gained from the knowledge and skills those students needed. This was matched by the time and money that was spent on them during their schooling and job training. Saxenian (2002, 2005) suggested that there were huge advantages to brain circulation because repatriates could be in their home country while they continued to maintain social and professional ties with their host country Scholars argued repeatedly about the effects of brain drain, brain gain, and brain circulation upon various countries involved in their studies. Some would question the authenticity of this circulation of talent (Harvey 2012; Saxenian, 2006). Harvey (2012) referenced Kapur and McHale (2005), who worried that the highest ranking scholars from Indian universities emigrated from India to the United States in higher numbers than those scholars who graduated with lesser degrees from lesser universities. In other words, they argued that the very top professionals tended to be the ones to leave. Others would say that this was not negative because innovation tended to flow to and from the host country and increased the resources and knowledge in the home country (Harvey, 2012). Perna et al. (2014) looked at the cost benefits for an emerging economy as scholars returned from international study. In Kazakhstan, a government-sponsored scholarship program (the Bolashak program) found that
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