The concept of MSAs was first proposed by Deschamps in 1953. A patent were issued in France in 1955 in the names of Gutton and Baissinor. After the 1970, the research publications started to flow within the appearances of the first design equation. Since the, different authors started investigation on microstrip patch antennas like James hall, David M. Pozars and there are also some who contributed a lot. Throughout the years, the authors has dedicated there investigations to create a new designs or variations to the original antenna that, to some extent; produce either the wider bandwidth or the multiple frequency operation with in a single element. However most of these innovations bear some disadvantages related to size, height,width or overall volume of the single element and the improvement in the bandwidth suffers usually from degradation the other characteristics. Line feeding technique of microstrip antenna are also attracted researchers because of several advantages over other feeding techniques. Since the feed layout and patches could be etched on one board, it could makes the fabrication easier. The level of the input impedance are easily controllable. Line patches of microstrip had bandwidth and gain characteristics which is relatively narrow. These techniques are also suffers from poor surface wave efficiency and the relatively high spurious feed radiation .
In 1987, the Rigorous Analysis of a Microstrip line Fed Patch Antenna are
The different forms of antenna technology refer to single or multiple inputs and outputs. These are related to the radio link. In this way the input is the transmitter as it transmits into the link or signal path, and the output is the receiver. It is at the output of the wireless link.
Here first we design a simple rectangular shaped microstrip patch antenna with dimension 14 X 14 X 1.60 mm^3 shown in Fig.1. In this antenna the dimension of patch is 10 X 13 mm^2. We are using microstrip line feed to this rectangular patch with length 4mm and width 1.6mm. By simulating this simple patch antenna we were getting only two frequency bands as shown in Fig2.
Among numerous choices, it is the most simple and result oriented approach. After selecting the resonant mode, it is the resonator’s dielectric constant value and its aspect ratio (a/h) that define the obtainable bandwidth. In simple geometric shapes such as cylindrical DRAs the smallest possible εr value makes Q-factor low which as a consequence results in wider bandwidth .
The consequences of undiagnosed and untreated OSA are medically serious and economically costly. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is considered the gold standard of treatment for OSA along with lifestyle modifications. With CPAP use, patients can reduce their healthcare utilization and save money by reducing the impact of OSA symptoms, comorbidities, and motor vehicle accidents. Direct costs associated with comorbidities include increased medical expenses, emergency room visits, hospital inpatient visits, medication use, and mortality rates (American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2016).
On old radios the antenna was detrimental to the radio’s operation. Today, the antenna is not necessary. AM radio does not have as good of quality as FM but it can travel farther distances. FM signals can be interfered by things such as mountains or other barrier
Before doing anything with a client, especially a pregnant one, you would want a green light from the Dr. stating her ability to begin exercise. Next, you would want to know what her previous fitness level was as to where you would begin training her. It is important that if she was not performing any exercise before becoming pregnant, that she only use the minimal weight. At the beginning of working with her, I would want to make note of her BMI. 18 – 24.9 is stated to be an average BMI and it would be recommended she gain 25 – 35lbs and/or consume 300 more calories per day. 25 – 29 is labeled as an overweight BMI and be consulted to gain 15 – 25 lbs and/or 2- 3lbs per month, allowing for 200 more calories per day. More than 30 is classified
OSA is a common disorder that is caused by intermittent collapse of upper airway during sleep leading to brain arousal, changes in intrathoracic pressure, and intermittent episodes of hypoxemia and reoxygenation. OSA is increasingly being recognized as a major public health burden, with a strong focus on the associated cardiovascular risk (Phillips and O'Driscoll, 2013).
Staphylococcus was discovered by a Scottish surgeon named Sir Alexander Ogston and described its resemblance to a bunch of grapes when found it as pus in his patient’s knee, in 1880 (Nihgov, 2017). In 1884, Staphylococcus aureus was specifically described by German scientist Fredrich Julius Rosenbach, from gold colored (Nihgov, 2017). S. aureus is a bacterium that is Gram positive and cocci shaped (Venkatesh, 2017).
In a real radio station, the radio will have an assigned frequency so no two stations will be broadcasting over each other. When a radio is tuned to a number, it is really being tuned to that number’s frequency. Electromagnetic waves are very important to radios because they provide a medium at which to output a sound. Because of their properties of magnetism and electricity, they are able to broadcast a sound at a distance of which no other medium can.
Considerable work done on analyzing their resonant modes, radiation characteristics, and various feeding schemes has demonstrated that these “new” radiators could offer new and attractive features in antenna design. Many new elements and arrays with attractive characteristics for wireless and other applications have been implemented and descriptions of some of these are included in the literature [1, 3]
Figure 5. XBee Pro 63mW Wire Antenna - Series 2B (ZigBee Mesh). SparkFun website …………………………………………………………………………………………................7
Now we know that MIMO is an array, so we need to be some terms related to antenna array, which is Array gain, the average increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiverthat arises from the coherent combining effect of multiple antennas at the receiveror transmitter or both.If the channel is known to the multiple antenna transmitter,
The motive of this paper is to propose a novel band stop Frequency Selective Surface (FSS). The proposed FSS provides security to wireless networks used by sensitive areas. It also provides security to explosive devices by blocking both GSM-900 and GSM-1800 frequency bands.
Metamaterial structures can either be periodic (homogenous) or non-periodic (inhomogenous). Their properties depend on the construction and arrangement of their constituents. These con- stituents are usually smaller