Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States has been viewed as the single hegemonic power, dominating the world economically, militarily and culturally. However, it is clear that power relations in the global system have been severely tested after the events of September 11, 2001. It was a crucial event, which significantly changed the trajectory of the global balance of power and has an immediate effect on the United States, its Western Allies and other regions around the world.. As a matter of national security strategy, the main priority of the U.S. becomes the demonstration of its global primacy to all challengers and overthrowing of the status quo of the powers in the hostile regions, while the terror emerges as a widespread power utilization method of the weak in asymmetrical power balance. Although, before the terrorist attacks the process of globalization has already challenged the notion of sovereignty, however, 9/11 attacks has become a game changer in terms of national security across the world. It also brought the need for the powerful states to cooperate more on intelligence, threat assessment and implementation of regulatory and management strategies. At the same time, the strong emphasis of the foreign policy of the United States on counter terrorism in the Islamic regions has challenged the status quo of some states in the Middle East, North Africa and South Asia. This paper represents an analysis of the impact of the sustained U.S.
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The attacks on September 11, 2001 by international terrorist that destroyed the twin towers brought a new American culture of policy change on international terrorism. At first there was a unilateral war on terror and hardening of the United States national borders. The drastic measures ranged from tightening airport security to creating a new governmental Department of Homeland Security with an almost limitless money basis (Anderson, 2003). International cooperation on the war on terror as President Bush adopted a unilateral approach to strike and invade Iraq (United States Code 22 Section 2656F(d) 2013). The assumption of a global terrorism ring brought in a shift around the world to the risk of being attacked. The United States bore the
During the era of the Cold War, starting in 1947 and definitively ending in 1991, the United States and the Soviet Union faced off in conflicts with each other through smaller states.
One of the main things Reagan was known for his is stance on communist and his commitment to end the Cold War. Reagan was not afraid of the Soviet Union like his Carter or Ford who served as President before him. He told the Secretary of Defense to order whatever is needed and not to worry about the budget. He wanted to be in a position of strength, that way he believed he would be able to negotiate with them; he had a saying of “To build up to build down” http://millercenter.org/president/biography/reagan-domestic-affairs. Reagan did not want there to be an arms race, however if there were to be one he was determined not to loose. The CIA confirmed that the Soviet Union’s economy could not support an arms race against the US. In Reagan’s mind, winning the Cold War meant having the Soviet Union cease to exist.
The emergence of the Cold War with the Soviet Union had far reaching impacts on American society, including hindering the pace of social reform in the United States. While some aspects of the Cold War may have helped promote certain social reforms, the net impact, deterred inevitable social reforms. Tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War induced a fear of communism in Americans that had numerous effects on American policies. McCarthyism, a period of controversial accusations on supposedly “communist” Americans, developed from the panic that communism would overcome the United States’ government, leading to loss of individual freedoms. In addition, social reform, especially the Civil Rights Movement, received inadequate attention as American leaders fixated on defeating communism and preventing it from contaminating the United States. Therefore, the United States’ preoccupation with containing communism throughout the Cold War Era hindered social reform domestically. As a result, social reform successes were limited primarily to those exhibiting visible political value by demonstrating the United States’ belief in equality and democracy to the rest of the world.
After U.S. had an isolationist foreign policy for a long time, U.S. has shifted its power from isolationism to the internationalism. In international relations, united states is the dominate force, which has the biggest military arsenal in the world. However, the position on how the United States should deal with terror is not only relay on the preeminent power that American security has. It also depends on the policymaker. According to James N. Rosenau, the foreign policy can be influenced by five potential resources(Michael Cox &Doug Stokes p6). There are external government, social environments, government structure, bureaucratic roles and personalities of individuals. The directions in U.S. foreign policy moves differently because
America’s foundation was constructed on the ideal of freedom, whether that be religious, political, or individual freedom. U.S. citizens have very strong feelings about their independence and will do almost anything to protect their rights from being taken away. During the 1950s Americans were afraid that their freedom was going to be threatened and taken away by the communist style of government. The Soviet Union and America were both trying to win control on a global scale, but with the USSR being communist the paranoia of a socialism takeover was heightened. Americans were so fearful of communism that it became known as the Red Scare. All over the country people were being accused of being communist spies and federal employees were being interrogated, the U.S. was in full panic mode. The United States was so fearful of the USSR being able to gather more communist allies and take over that the U.S. stepped in militarily to protect South Korea from North Korea’s communist invasion. This battle for dominance between the nations was named the Cold War. I believe that this war was justified because there were clear threats towards the United States and their capitalist ideals. In the very beginning of the Cold War the Soviet Union successfully tested an atomic bomb. This seemed like a clear indication that the USSR had plans to use that bomb in order to establish their dominance and embark on a communist takeover. America fought to keep their freedom and rights safe from the
The fall of the Soviet Union gave childless American couples the opportunity to adopt needy, white children. Thousands upon thousands of children from Russia and Eastern Europe were adopted in New York during the 1990’s and 2000’s, and the vast majority of these adoptions produced genuinely happy families. The children were excited to have loving families and the adoptive parents were excited to have a child to love. However, some children had difficulty transitioning to life in the United States while others were victims of abuse. Almost every adoptive case I worked with had a happy ending. Every adoptive case except for one. I hesitate to say that the “child” in question was actually a child. Sometimes I think that I legitimately was dealing with pure evil in human form.
The United States did not have a favorable relationship with the Soviet Union during the Cold War due to the Soviet’s desire to spread communism. In the midst of the ideological battle between the United States and the Soviets, U.S. sought attention to whole Southeast Asia due to the radical dispersion of Communism. North Vietnam formed an alliance with the Soviet Union, and China to unite the country into a communist regime. As an international peace keeper, the United States decided to fund the French and eventually send military troops to Vietnam to help in combat he North Vietnamese guerillas, and contain the spread of communism before it escalates in full-scale across all of Southeast Asia. The Marshall Plan urged the United States to
After a series of events during the time of World War II, tensions between the United States and the Communists such as the Soviet Union and China, developed into a military and political conflict such as the Cold War. During the Cold War, which went on for 50 years, the Soviet Union and the United States competed to expand their economical and political influence. Although, the United States military has increased in size and it’s strategy. The United States power today is highly supreme when it comes to competing with other countries in the world. The United States is the world 's largest producer of nuclear power, holding an immense amount of nuclear and atomic bombs, accounting for more than big percentage of worldwide nuclear
The Zbigniew Brzezinski defined a Soviet victory as entailing “the submissive neutralization of both Western Europe (through the dismantling of NATO) and Japan, and the withdrawal of U.S. political military presence across the oceans. Moreover, victory was also defined as attaining the worldwide economic supremacy of communism over capitalism” . Part of this view is corroborated in the infamous Long Telegram by American diplomat George F. Kennan, which, among other things, claimed that the USSR wanted to further socialism at the cost of Western capitalism. . From both sources, one can assume the terms of victory for the Soviet Union in the Cold War, and, consequently, these can be compared with the actual events of the Cold War to determine how large a defeat the Soviet Union suffered. It is indeed true that the Western capitalism emerged victorious in the end. Western Europe wasn’t “neutralised”; in fact, it was Eastern Europe that submitted to Western politics as the USSR collapsed. Similarly, by the end of the Cold War it was the USSR’s political presence - rather than the US’ - that had collapsed, leaving the US seemingly unopposed as the leading global superpower. In each of these cases, it appears that the Soviet Union suffered a total defeat far removed from any conditions of victory. However, while this paper will begin by examining these areas of defeat, it will then go on to argue that the defeat was not necessarily total. Finally, it will argue that survival and
After World War II, the world was in a state of heightened suspicion that was lead by ideological differences. There were two main “superpowers” that shaped perceptions of the rest of the world. One was the United States, who had come out of the war fairly unscathed, which was due to little to no conflict directly on its soil, in addition to the possession of atomic weapons and a strong navy and air force. The other major player was the Soviet Union, whose industry was recovered during the first few years of the war in addition to a powerful army. These superpowers had a large impact on other countries due to their ideological differences: the United States favored a capitalistic democracy while the Soviet Union believed in communism. One country that was heavily influenced by both superpowers at the same time was Korea, which was ultimately split into two halves. The United States had a heavy impact on the south while the Soviet Union had an effect on the north. During the Cold War from the late 1940s to the early 1950s, The Soviet Union and the United States wanted to set up spheres of influence in foreign countries so that they could observe what the other was doing, which ultimately lead to the exploitation of North and South Korea.
Although things seem to be changing after the Soviet Union fell apart, they stay the same when it comes to anti-Semitism. In an open letter, Communist Party leader Gennady Zyuganov claimed there is a Zionist conspiracy to seize power in Russia and asserted that "Zionist capital" has wrecked Russia's economy. The letter appeared to be aimed at the Russian business tycoons known as the "oligarchs," who were instrumental in reelecting President Boris Yeltsin over Zyuganov in 1996. Most of these business people are Jewish, including Boris Berezovsky, who has called for outlawing the Communist Party in Russia. Zyuganov wrote the letter in the aftermath of criticism of the member of his party, who has made numerous anti-Semitic statements. The lower
The Soviet Union was notorious for the marginal quality of its housing, and the laborious process taken to gain residency. The first thing that would alarm us living in capitalist systems, is that the government determined where you live, and you applied for residency. “The fact that conditions were worse in 1960, when 60% of all families lived communally, is of little comfort to the millions still living in inadequate conditions. The waiting period for a new apartment is indefinite--it may take from a decade to a lifetime unless one has connections.” (Ellison). Chilling was the fact that housing would slowly get worse as the years dragged on. Upon finally gaining your new home, the rent would drain on your already limited funds. The houses
Former President Jimmy Carter once stated, “When I was in the White House, I was confronted with the challenge of the Cold War. Both the Soviet Union and I had 30,000 nuclear weapons that could destroy the entire earth and I had to maintain the peace” (“Jimmy Carter”). This statement has seemingly remained truthful from the point when Soviet Russia and America worked together to stem, and eventually end, the tide of Nazi Germany’s imperialistic overthrow of Europe. Since the end of World War II to the present day, relations between Russia and America have declined due to the Cold War, improved due to Russia 's transition to democracy, and are reverting back to Cold War standards in relation to political involvement and economic standards,
When the September 11, 2001 attacks occurred the United States responded in a manner which was seen as a traditional reaction to such an attack; it used its overwhelming superior military to invade the nation of Afghanistan. As Afghanistan was the operating base of the terrorist group responsible for the attacks, Al Qaeda, the invasion all but destroyed the group's operating capacity. But in response to the United States' apparent victory the terrorists have re-organized themselves into a looser confederation and turned to alternative methods of finance and operation. One could say that the success of the American military's answer to the September 11th attacks have created a new environment in which terrorists currently operate. This includes the use of the internet, unconventional alliances with international criminal organizations, as well the inception of the "lone wolf" terrorist. Faced with these new type of threats, the United States and its allies must find a way to identify and deal with them.