For example many of the apostles were themselves writers, and these writings are the foundation for the Christian faith. Petrarch gives the example of the apostle Paul having his head turned by study. By following the example given by the apostles of their study of literature, Petrarch believes, would but us on a higher path of devoutness. Ignorance of literature leads to sloth and is a lower road even with a strong
Dante Alighieri wrote the Divine Comedy from 1308-1320. The story narrates Dante’s pilgrimage through hell, purgatory, and heaven while guided by Virgil and Beatrice. Throughout this journey Dante conforms himself to virtue, properly orders his passions, and conforms his conscience, “Dante 's psychopoiesis operates through the mimetic deformation, reformation, and transformation of conscience” (Macready, 2). This essay will examine what a true conscience is according to the Catechism of the Catholic Church and explore the nature of the conscience in Dante’s Divina Commedia. Additionally, this essay will examine the errors of Dante’s conscience regarding divine justice, love, and courage; and who contributes to this formation.
The beginning of the Renaissance brought many changes to the world. It became known as the “Age of Exploration” and it brought in a new perspective on art. This perspective on art is shown through anything from visual arts to literary art. This time period also introduced the rise of humanism. It brought into the picture a very optimistic view of humanity. This was shown especially in the work The Ascent of Mont Ventoux by Francesco Petrarch. This work refers back to Book X of Confessions by Saint Augustine when Petrarch reaches the top of the mountain. Although they are both dealing with the same passage, Petrarch and Augustine seem to interpret it in very different ways.
In the Early Modern Period, readers of this literature get to see a dramatic shift and transition from medieval thinking to Renaissance thinking. Towards the beginning of this time period, human nature was very concerned with the consequences of straying from religion. This is evident through the work of Dante in Inferno, and Petrarch in Canzoniere. In Inferno, Dante gives his readers a glimpse into the afterlife and where each person goes after death. Each layer of the afterlife symbolizes the crime/sins that were committed in a lifetime, the deeper it gets the worse it gets. In Canzoniere by Petrarch, it represents a man who has strayed from the path of God and, instead, spent his life searching for individual passions. By giving the reader
During the course of this dangerous pilgrimage, the narrator is filled with fear at the "dizzying depth" (113) of the ridge he must cross. In the midst of his paralyzing terror, the narrator asks himself, "I wondered what my good friend Jean-Christophe would say if I were to turn back. With an imperious wave of his conductors baton he would tell me which way to go... After all, how could I die now, without having known love or sex, without having taken free individual action against the whole world, as he had" (114). The novel Jean-Christophe has certainly affected the narrator greatly.
In Descartes’ Meditations, he is making a systematic attempt to find a necessary truth; that is, a truth that cannot be false. The purpose in finding this necessary truth is not only for self-affirmation, but to create something certain and undeniable in the sciences. He aims to acquire this truth through the extensive examination of the distinction of the human soul, the body, and the existence of God.
When reading Dante’s ‘Inferno’, it becomes apparent that Alighieri used his writing as a means of cogitating on the events that happened in his life. In order to understand his references to early Rome, Florentine politics, and other characteristics of the poem, it is necessary for the reader to develop a foundational background of Alighieri himself. With this knowledge, one can begin to grasp the concepts of symbolism and idealism that are so prevalent within the text, experiencing the poem in a completely different way.
I have once encountered someone who believed philosophy is just about moral values and nothing else. To an extent that is true however, I have learned you gain knowledge from each other by talking about philosophy. Philosophy is all about thoughts and reflection for understanding what the world offers. Within this essay, it will show the perspectives of wisdom from ancient thinkers apart from medieval thinkers. As well as how these different groups of thinkers see an essential link between philosophical discourse and practice or how can one live life. Epictetus and Pierre Hadot are both concern with ancient philosophy, whereas Remi Brague and Thomas Aquinas studied medieval philosophy. The religious doctrine contains the idea that God freely
Pico della Mirandola in his work, “Oration on the Dignity of Man”, re-evaluates humanism and humans in general. His work talks about the dignity of man in particular and how man differs from other creatures as man is a creation with a unique and important trait, free will. He uses several arguments to support his claim that humans can choose their destiny and in doing so can achieve perfection. He presents a piece of work that challenges the medieval view of human nature.
Great works of literature have been written throughout history. However, The Divine Comedy and Paradise Lost have the inept ability to stir the soul and cause a person to examine and re-examine their life. The brilliant descriptions, use of imagery, metaphor and simile give a person a vivid picture of the creation of man and the possibilities for life in the hereafter. This is done, as a person is able to see, full circle, from the beginning of time to the end of time, the consequences of turning away from God. The ability to see a life full circle is apparent through the examination of both of these poems. Although written many years ago, the morals and principles that they convey ring very true
It is evident that both the aspects of weakness and admiration are thoroughly explored through the actions and relationships of various characters giving us insight into the human condition. Both composers highlight that discovery is the base of aspects of the human condition showing that is conjures both weaknesses and admiration. Together the two texts, A Scandal in Bohemia and Departures establish that discovery is the intrinsic provision behind understanding universal truths demonstrating the timelessness of the human
The Count of Monte Cristo, the most famous book written by Alexandre Dumas, tells a story which is a painful life in the jail that the protagonist Edmond suffered by receiving an unjust judgment and the perfect process of revenge after he escaped the prison. This book focus on the changes of Edmond’s personalities and his perspective of the world because of the dramatic impact that the living circumstance could do to a person in their inner world. In this novel, Alexandre Dumas uses third person omniscient narration not only to reveal the influence of environment on Edmond by showing how other characters respond to his changing nature, but also to push the plot further through the description of all the characters’
The works of two philosophers Machiavelli’s The Prince and Descartes’s Meditations on First Philosophy were revolutionary in terms of setting knowledge on new foundations. In the literary work The Prince Machiavelli details the guidelines that leaders should adhere to in order to maintain stability in their controlled lands by accurately summarizing the nature of humans as being ungrateful, vain, and selfish individuals. While Descartes in his work Meditations on First Philosophy ventures on a journey to decipher the relationship between his body and mind and what in actuality exists. Both philosophers embark on a journey to comprehend and uncover the truth.
Descartes and Augustine, in their respective examinations of the mind and God, come to the conclusion that the true understanding of all things derives from the withdrawal of the self from foreign influence and the necessity to look inward. Although each thinker’s journey or course of understanding was different, and at times rather contrasting, their ultimate realizations about knowledge are very coherent.