The Development of Heart Failure

916 WordsFeb 26, 20184 Pages
1-Introduction Intro- Heart Failure is a multifactorial disease due to significant diminishing of heart pumping action. This is occurs in response to many underlying disease such as diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction and cardiac myopathies. These conditons lead to hemodynamic instability, neuroendocrine imbalances and structural remodeling of cardiac myocytes. Early less sever hf allows for compensatory mechanisms such as neuroendocrine stimulation- (beta adrenbergic r endothelin norepinephrine r), and hypertrophy which allow for sufficient left ventricular pumping action. However as hf develops these mechanisms become unable to compensate for the progressive underlying disease which results in further loss of contraction and relaxation efficiency and loss of regulation. Ca roles- apoptosis, hypertrophic growth, signal transduction pathway- etcs- gene transcriptional and essential in ecc, regulate pacemaking- LOSS OF CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS IN THE CARDIAC MYOCYTE HAS SIGNIFICANT EFFECTS ON THESE DIFFERENT PROCESSES and can have many pathological impliocations I will specifically focus on the how ca regulation is affected in signal transduction pathways and ecc which are the main changes in the cardiac myocyte. ECC- IMPAIRED FORCE DEVELOPMENT, SLOWER RELAXATION AND PROLONGATION OF AP DURATION CAIN signaling transduction pathways - affects many ca dependent signalling proteins whic leads to downstream Hypertophic growth and gene trancscription- (impaired
Open Document