The domestication of animals 30,000 years ago was the precursor to Genetic Engineering. Starting with the dog we have since been able to introduce desirable traits in all organisms. With the discovery of plasmids in the late 60’s we have been able to take genetic engineering even further. Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules used to amplify and replicate a gene of interest. These minute molecules have the ability to replicate with the chromosome or independently, allowing them to have up to a 100 copies in one cell. Plasmids are important because of their characteristics to transfer genes that occur naturally within them or acting as a vector to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell. With the use of plasmids genetic engineers are able to use bacterial transformation to make medicines. Bacterial transformation is the process in which a bacterial cell takes up foreign DNA and incorporates this DNA into its own. With the use bacterial transformation this part of Genetic Engineering has become the most important and widely used technique, creating life saving antibiotics and medicines. E.coli is generally used in these procedures because of its ability to adapt and grow exponentially. Genetic Engineers can then use large bacterial colonies, Ampicillin, and X-gal to indicate if b-glactosidase is present along with identifying the recombinant and non-recombinant colonies. The transformed bacteria that contains ampicillin will spread and survive either turning white
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This pBlu lab had for purpose to present the changes of the strain of E. coli bacteria due to new genetic information being introduced into the cell. In this experiment we are freezing and heat shocking the E. Coli bacteria that is then forced to take the plasmid DNA. The E. coli then transforms the pBLu plasmid, which carries the genes coding for two identifiable phenotypes. After following the Carolina Biological steps our lab worked well and we able to see some colonies of bacteria on the plates. The x-gal plate showed a significant amount of bacteria to confirm that the pBlu plasmid took over the E. coli strain.
As predicted the E. coli colony transformed with either the PUC18 or the lux plasmid developed an ampicillin resistance. Which made it easier for them to not only survive but also replicate in both the LB agar plates and the LB ampicillin rich agar plate. However the E. coli colony not treated with the plasmids could not survive and colonize in the LB ampicillin rich agar plates. The plate that had no ampicillin in its environment and no plasmid treated E. coli served as a positive control for this experiment because it demonstrated how the E. coli would colonize and grow in a normal setting. The cells in the positive control plate grew into lawn colonies because they were not placed into a selective environment or transformed, so they had no need to acquire ampicillin resistance. Two plates in the experiment contained E. coli cells that were transformed with either the PUC18 or the lux plasmid but were placed in an ampicillin free environment. These two colonies grew
This lab is about moving genes from one thing to another using plasmids. Plasmid has the ability to replicate, so it replicates independently, and separately from the chromosomal DNA. Plasmid are one or more small piece of DNA and they enter cells as a double strand DNA. When they enter the cell as a doubke strand they do not invade he chromosomal DNA. We will also transform bacteria into GFP which is mainly from the jelly fish Aequorea Victoria. The GFP causes the the jelly fish to fluorescent and glow in the dark. After the transformation, bacteria starts to make the GFP which causes them to glow a green color under a ultraviolet light.
This experiment was designed to test and observe the transformation efficacy of the pUC18 and lux plasmids in making E. coli resistant to ampicillin. Both plasmids code for ampicillin resistance, however, the lux plasmid codes for a bioluminescence gene that is expressed if properly introduced into the bacteria’s genome. The E. coli cultures were mixed with a calcium chloride solution and then heat shocked, allowing the plasmids to enter the bacteria and assimilate into the bacterial DNA. The plasmids and the bacteria were then mixed in different test tubes and then evenly spread onto petri dishes using a bacterial spreader, heating the spreader between each sample to make sure there is no cross contamination. Each of the dishes was labeled and then incubated for a period of 24 hours. The results were rather odd because every single one of the samples grew. Several errors could have occurred here, cross contamination or possibly an error in preparation as every single sample in the class grew, meaning all samples of the bacteria transformed and became ampicillin resistant.
The plasmid pGLO contains an antibiotic-resistance gene, ampR, and the GFP gene is regulated by the control region of the ara operon. Ampicillin is an antibiotic that kills E. coli, so if E. coli, so if E. coli cells contain the ampicillin-resistance gene, the cells can survive exposure to ampicillin since the ampicillin-resistance gene encodes an enzyme that inactivates the antibiotic. Thus, transformed E. coli cells containing ampicillin-resistance plasmids can easily be selected simply growing the bacteria in the presence of ampicillin-only the transformed cells survive. The ara control region regulates GFP expression by the addition of arabinose, so the GFP gene can be turned on and
The purpose of this experiment is to make E.Coli competent so that it can be transformed in order to become immune to ampicillin, then we would be able to determine the transformation efficiency of the culture. We determine this by preparing 4 plates of E.coli, each labeled “LB-plasmid”, “LB+plasmid”, “LB?Amp-plasmid”, and “LB/Amp+plasmid”. This meant that either should have lacked plasmid and Ampicillin, with plasmid but lacked Ampicillin, without plasmid but with Ampicillin, or were with Ampicillin and plasmid, respectively. Then we made the bacterial cells competent by adding CaCl2 to 2 vials of the colony (one with plasmids), and incubating on ice, then heat shocking, and returning to ice. Luria Broth is then added and left to sit for 5-15
The purpose of this experiment was to show the genetic transformation of E. coli bacteria with a plasmid that codes for Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) and contains a gene regulatory system that confers ampicillin resistance. A plasmid is a genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of chromosomes. In this lab, the Green Fluorescent Protein, which is typically found in the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea Victoria, was cloned, purified, and moved from one organism to another with the use of pGlo plasmids. It was hypothesized that if bacteria that were transformed with +pGlo plasmids are given the gene for GFP, then transformed cell colonies
For this experiment, E. coli was best for genetic engineering because of their size, and their fast reproduction (Spilios, 2017). E. coli will be genetically transformed using an engineered plasmid. A plasmid is a circular piece of DNA which independently replicates and multiplies because it has its own origin of replication (Spilios, 2017). The pGLO is the plasmid used in this experiment. Plasmids are used as vectors and they contain manipulated genes such as genes coding for antibiotic resistance for drugs like ampicillin. This antibiotic resistance of such serves as the selectable marker in genetic transformation and for genetic transformation to proceed, the cell must reach competency which is the physiological state that is required for the vector plasmid to get into the cell for transformation (Spilios, 2017). While competency can be reached naturally in some organism, it must be reached artificially in E. coli through treatment with CaCl2 and exposing them to heat shock using incubation (Spilios, 2017).
It will also highlight how successfully integrated plasmids can affect the cell and what proteins are produced by the DNA, and how easy it is to change the genetics of cell and the future generations of that cell. The experiment also demonstrates how natural selection would work in a lab environment, and how the addition of a gene or a mutation can protect an organism from adverse conditions in the environment. This lab also illustrates the change in DNA in a visual sense. Molecular genetics is a very small scale science that cannot be seen by the human eye, however by illuminating the bacteria with the GFP it will produce the very small process can be clearly seen before and after the genetic splicing. The bacteria will produce quickly and the successful bacteria will be clearly seen by the human eye, even after generations upon generations of bacteria.
This experiment was performed to assess the efficacy of genetic transformations on bacteria via plasmid DNA coding for ampicillin resistance and green fluorescent protein. Genetic transformation was studied by taking transformed and untransformed Escherichia Coli (E. coli) and placing them on various media to observe gene expression via growth and color under UV light. The transformed E. coli were able to grow on ampicillin while the untransformed E. coli, which lacked the plasmid genes for ampicillin resistance, only grew on nutrient broth. In the presence of arabinose, the transformed E. coli glowed green. These results support the previous scientific understanding of bacterial competency, vectors, and gene expression and support gene transformations as an effective method to transfer the desirable DNA of one organism into another organism’s DNA. These results can be applied to real world issues such as medical treatments, food production, and environmental conservation.
Genetic transformation occurs when an organism’s genetic makeup is altered due to the introduction of new genetic information which is then incorporated into the organism’s genome. In this lab the pGLO plasmid is introduced into E. Coli bacteria, and incorporates the genes which code for the GFP and beta lactamase to the bacteria’s genome which as a result will be modified. To test the effects of the plasmid, bacteria treated with the plasmid were grown on separate plates, the first containing LB nutrient broth and ampicillin, another containing LB nutrient broth and arabinose and another containing LB nutrient broth, ampicillin and arabinose. Two more plates were grown, one with LB nutrient broth and ampicillin and the other with only the LB broth, using cells that did not contain the plasmid. Since the lab was about genetic transformation, the goal was to find which plate would glow. It was found that the plates that were not exposed to the plasmid did not glow, and the plates containing LB and arabinose and LB, ampicillin and arabinose did glow. The plates containing ampicillin, the antibiotic that kills E. coli did not grow whereas the remaining plates at least had some growth.
After analyzing the data recorded for both the agar plates containing ampicillin and those that did not, it can be concluded that the data provides enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. There is enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis stating that there is a correlation between plasmids coding for an antibiotic resistant gene and bacterial growth in ampicillin. When a bacterial solution containing either pUC18 or the lux plasmid is transformed in an agar plate containing ampicillin, only those cells which took in the plasmid are able to survive and replicate, forming individual colonies. Not all cells are transformed though, the chances of a successful transformation were extremely low. In order to see which cell transformed the cells were tagged according to their plasmid, in the plates containing pUC18 the only
Plasmids are small double stranded circular non chromosomal DNA molecules containing their own origin of replication. Hence, they are capable of replication independent of the chromosomal DNA in bacteria. Plasmids present in one or more copies per cell, can carry extra chromosomal DNA from one cell to another cell and serve as tools to clone and manipulate genes. Plasmids used exclusively for this purpose are known as vectors. The genes of interest can be inserted into these vector plasmids creating a recombinant plasmid. Recombinant plasmids can play a significant role in gene therapy, DNA vaccination, and drug delivery [Rapley, 2000].
Bacterial transformation is the process of moving genes from a living thing to another with the help of a plasmid.The plasmid is able to help replicate the chromosomes by themselves; laboratories use these to aid in gene multiplication. Bacterial transformation is relevant in everyday lives due to the fact that almost all plasmids carry a bacterial origin of replication and an antibiotic resistance gene(“Addgene: Protocol - How to Do a Bacterial
（Karl Haro von Mogel, 17 July 2015）Among them, the most advanced and most effective is transgenesis, it involves a desirable DNA trait, a specific restriction enzyme, a vector, gold molecules, and gene gun. For example, some genetically modified insect-free tomatoes gets their ability from the genes of a bacteria called Bacillus Thuringiensis. The scientists first cut out the insect resistance gene from the B.Thuringiensis’s DNA with some restriction enzymes(enzymes capable of cutting specific regions of a DNA), secondly, they’ll insert bacteria’s insect resistance gene into a vector or a plasmid(special bacterial circular chromosome that are separated from bacteria’s rest of the genetic information) with a selectable antibiotic resistance maker gene, which will then be put into another bacteria so that it can go through multiple mitosis, so the genetic information is amplified. After sufficient amount of DNA is gathered, scientist will coat tungsten or gold particles with DNA vectors separated from bacterias, then turn them into teflon bullets, and shot them into tomato plant cells which will allow the genes to integrate into the nucleus. Finally for the last step, cells are plated on a selective antibiotic media, that only cells that have incorporated the vector will grow, these cells will then transferred to medium containing plant growth factors.(GSLC. 2013, July 15) Some herbivory can