The Effect Of The Concentration Of A Substance On The Rate Of Reaction
Year 9 Chemistry Assignment Term 3
The purpose of this experiment was to measure and interpret the effect of a chemical concentration on a reaction rate. A collision theory is a theory proposed by Max Trautz and William Lewis that states: qualitatively explains how chemical reactions occur and why reaction rates differ for different chemical reactions (Wikipedia, 2015). An example of collision theory is when two motor vehicles collide with one another creating a large impact as the particles combine with one another due to the large impact created. A chemical reaction is a process that involves the rearrangement of the molecular and ionic structure of a substance when the interaction of two or more chemicals is compounded to create a new substance (Middle School Chemistry, 2015). An example of a chemical reaction is when a bike begins to rust or when photosynthesis takes place (Uen.org, 2015). The different types of Molars used in the experiment affected the speed of the reactions of the acid. These times varied on the amount of concentration used in the molars. This was shown in the results of the experiment as the 2Molar gave an average time of 23.88 seconds, for the water to decrease to 30 ml in the test tube. The 1Molar gave an average 54.94 seconds to reach 30 ml of water in the test tube, and the 0.5Molar displayed an average time of 3 minutes 13 seconds to reach 30 mL.
From the results that were collect throughout the experimental investigation has proved the hypothesis to only be partially right. Multiple tests were made when conducting the experiment, two clear solutions were combined at various temperatures and concentrations. The hypothesis states that by adjusting the concentration of the reactants will cause the reaction to either speed up at a higher concentration or slow down at a lower concentration. In the reaction temperature should have a similar effect on the experiment, in that increasing the temperature will cause an increase of particle movement and cause more collision, thus increasing the reaction rate. Therefore decreasing the temperature will decrease the rate of the reaction. From the results given in Tables 2 and 3 it shown that every time the concentration is halved the time is increased. When the concentrations of both KIO3 and NaHSO3 are decreased the time has increased, some concentrations having a higher increase than others. In each concentration decrease the time is at least doubled from the previous concentration time, which is therefore increasing the rate of the reaction.
Used to see if the temperature of the water is at 37oc – 40oc and if
How concentration affects the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate Chemistry Coursework How Concentration Affects a Reaction Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out how concentration affects the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Thiosulphate. Introduction: This experiment will be carried out by drawing a cross on a piece of paper and mixing hydrochloric acid and sodium thiosulphate together to see if the cross disappears. The concentration of hydrochloric acid would change every reaction to show that concentration effects a reaction.
Question: How does changing enzyme concentration or temperature affect the reaction time of enzyme activity?
This means that substances that absorb more hydrogen ions will produce faster reactions times due to higher temperatures. The data obtained from this experiment did not support the claim hypothesized. In the hypothesis it was stated that the acidic solution would produce the fastest reaction time. At the end of the completed experiment it was discovered that the basic solution produced the fastest reaction time of 60.771 seconds, while the acidic solutions reaction time was 65.971 seconds, and the neutral solution produced a 63.425 reaction time. Some potential problems that could have arouse during this experiment were that not all beakers contained the same amount of substance. Since the liquids were measured with the naked eye there is a chance that amount of solutions in each beaker were different. Another potential issue could have been not allowing all of the antacid tablet to dissolve before stopping the timer. This issue much like the one stated before would be hard to tell by just looking at the experiment with a naked eye. Perhaps in another experiment looking to test pH and reaction times an experimenter should take solutions ranging across the pH scale and change the temperature of each substance to see how temperature can affect the reaction
In this experiment we tested the effects that enzymes and substrate have on chemical reaction rates, which is the rate at which chemical reactions occur.. This experiment tested how different concentrations of enzyme and substrate affected the light absorption measurements on a spectrophotometer. The experiment also tested how temperature affected the light absorption, and in a separate test, the effect of the enzyme inhibitor hydroxylamine was also tested. In the first test conducted, 3 different concentrations of enzyme, and three different concentrations of substrate were measured in a spectrophotometer. For the enzyme and the substrate, the measurements got higher as the concentrations were higher, but the over measurements of the substrate were smaller than those of the enzyme. In the second test conducted, the medium concentration enzyme was tested under the temperatures; 4°C, 23°C, 37°C, and 60°C. The measurements in this test got higher as the temperature got higher, but did the measurements under 4°C were overall significantly higher than the other temperature measurements. Lastly, the last test conducted showed that the measurements of the substance with 0 and 1 drop of hydroxylamine inhibitor went up, but the measurements of the enzyme with 5 drops of hydroxylamine inhibitor stayed rather low and did not change much. In conclusion, these experiments showed that chemical reaction rates are sped up with higher concentrations of enzyme, substrate,
Hypothesis: If the concentration of a substrate increases, any time an enzyme happens upon a substrate it will be free to help that substrate react, but then when an enzyme encounters a new substrate at a slightly higher concentration it will already be working on another substrate, therefore, as we increase substrate concentration it is not going to increase as fast as the reaction rate.
All around and inside cells, substances are continuously being moved back and forth across the cell membrane. At any time, a material can have a higher or lower concentration on one side of the cell membrane opposed to the other. The concentration is the amount of solute in a solvent. In which the concentration gradient means that there is more solute in one part of a solvent than another. A solvent is something that dissolves in a solute to create a solution; for example, when salt (solvent) dissolves in the water (solute) to make salt water (solution). There are several types of transport options for a certain substance, but it depends permeability of the membrane, which determines what moves in and out of the cell. The types of cellular transportation that they used were diffusion, osmosis and filtration. Diffusion is the movement of a material from an area of a higher concentration to a lower concentration, while osmosis is the diffusion of just water. Filtration is a passive transport that moves water and other materials across the cell membrane by a pressure from the cardiovascular system (Michener 2015). These are extremely important to the body, because without these transports our cells and organs could not get the nutrients they need nor get rid of the waste that is toxic.
Marble, or calcium carbonate, is a fairly insoluble compound with the chemical formula CaCO3. This compound has a carbonate ion, which has a charge of -2 and a calcium ion, which has a charge of +2. Calcium carbonate has a few forms including chalk and limestone. The main use of these two materials is in the making of concrete, which is used for many things including buildings. The rate of the reaction is the speed that the reaction takes place; therefore, by measuring the rate, the amount of time the reaction takes will be measured. Hydrochloric acid is a stronger acid that is found in digestive juices in the human stomach and is also used for cleaning metals before they are coated. When you mix a strong acid like HCl with any carbonate you will have a chemical reaction in which CO2 gas is released. This means that it will fizz indicating a chemical reaction. These two elements can react with hydrochloric acid to yield carbon dioxide, calcium chloride and water. The chemical reaction equation for hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate is:
I think that my results will show that the hydrochloric acid with a molarity of 2 will finish reacting the quickest because it is the strongest hydrochloric acid and I predict that the slowest experiment to finish reacting will be the 0.4 molar strength of hydrochloric acid. I think that the results will go slower and slower the nearer they are to the 0.4 strength of hydrochloric acid. The reason that the experiment with hydrochloric acid at 2 molar will dissolve the magnesium ribbon faster is because it is of a stronger concentration and so the molecules in
Introduction: In all matter there are small substances, called molecules. When two of these molecules collide with sufficient energy, there is a chance of a successful chemical reaction, this is the collision theory. These chemicals reactions are effected by a variety of outside factors and the duration for a reaction to occur is called the reaction rate. Reaction rate can be measured once the product has been created or when the reactant is spent. (Collision theory and rates of reaction, 2013)
When reactions were carried out in the absence of a catalyst for long periods of time (180 min under solvent-free conditions), the yields of products were low (< 5 %) (Table 2, Entry 1). Better yields and shorter reaction times were obtained when the reaction was carried out in the presence of 0.05 g of the catalyst under solvent-free conditions (Table 2, Entry
Reactions occur everywhere, and they may take decades, such as fossils, or only seconds, such as lighting a match to occur. “Chemical kinetics concerns the rates of chemical reactions” and what factors affects these rates (Iodine Clock, 2017). “Temperature, concentration, pressure of reacting gases, surface area of reacting solids and the use of catalysts are all factors which affect the rate of a reaction” (Bbc.co.uk, 2017). This is because they affect the reaction roles and yields of activation energy, product management and reactant management (William, 2017). This is accomplished by “making changes to the concentration, pressure or temperature of a reaction to alter the position of the equilibrium” (Bbc.co.uk, 2017).
reaction is the rate of loss of a reactant or the rate of formation of