The objective of the lab was to examine the effects of environmental variables on the functions of an enzyme. To the point, an experiment was conducted to test the effect of pH on the function of the enzyme Amylase.
0.0375 mg/ml Porcine Pancreatic Amylase Solution (amylase powder in 0.9% NaCl ), Iodine Solution; each solution were pipetted into each of the 5 test tubes with 5 ml of 1% starch. Each tube contained a 1% starch solution with a different pH. All tubes were at room temperature. Room temperature was 22C. 0.2 ml of porcine pancreatic amylase solution was then pipetted into each tube. A timer was started and every 3minutes the starch / amylase mixture were pipetted from each tube and pipetted into the spot plate for every sample tube, then the iodine solution were added to a spot plate cell for each sample. Iodine reacts with starch to change from yellow to deep blue /black in the presence of starch. A lightening of the blue/ black to a brown color will occur as less starch is present. Results were reported as (+) for presence of starch in the sample or (–) for the absence of starch. After every three minute increment had passed, these same
How pH Affects the Break Down of Starch by the Enzyme Amylase Hypothesis: The optimum pH for the reaction of starch with amylase is pH 7. PH values lower or higher than this value will result in a slower rate of reaction.
In this lab our group observed the role of pancreatic amylase in the digestion of starch and the optimum temperature and pH that affects this enzyme. Enzymes are located inside of cells that increase the rate of a chemical reaction (Cooper, 2000). Most enzymes function in a narrow range of pH between 5 through 9 (Won-Park, Zipp, 2000). The temperature for which enzymes can function is limited as well ranging from 0 degrees Celsius (melting point) to 100 degrees Celsius (boiling point)(Won-Park, Zipp, 2000). When the temperature varies in range it can affect the enzyme either by affecting the constant of the reaction rate or by thermal denturization of the particular enzyme (Won-Park, Zipp, 2000). In this lab in particular the enzyme, which was of concern, was pancreatic amylase. This type of amylase comes from and is secreted from the pancreas to digest starch to break it down into a more simple form called maltose. Maltose is a disaccharide composed of two monosaccharides of glucose. The presence of glucose in our experiment can be identified by Benedicts solution, which shows that the reducing of sugars has taken place. If positive the solution will turn into a murky reddish color, where if it is negative it will stay clear in our reaction. We can also test if no reduction of sugars takes place by an iodine test. If starch is present the test will show a dark black color (Ophardt, 2003).
What is bread? Bread is a food made of flour, water, and yeast mixed together and baked. In bread making, our main focus will be on the enzyme amylase. In wheat, there is naturally appearing amylase. Amylase in the shape of malted barley can be mixed with flour in minor amounts to achieve a proper balance of enzymes. The key purpose of amylase in wheat flour is to break down complex starches into simple sugars. Without this key process happening in the dough, fermentation would not occur because yeast needs simple sugars in order to make carbon dioxide. A proper balance of natural amylase in wheat flour is needed in order to make bread that is accurately fermented with a good colored crust and well-developed flavor.
Enzymes are high molecular weight molecules and are proteins in nature. Enzymes work as catalysts in biochemical reactions in living organisms. Enzyme Catecholase is found on in plants, animals as well as fungi and is responsible for the darkening of different fruits. In most cases enzymatic activities are influenced by a number of factors, among them is temperature, PH, enzyme concentration as well as substrate concentration (Silverthorn, 2004). In this experiment enzyme catecholase was used to investigate the effects of PH and enzyme concentration on it rate of reaction. A pH buffer was used to control the PH, potato juice was used as the substrate and water was used as a solvent.
In the following experiments we will measure precise amounts of potato extract as well as Phenylthiourea, combined with or without deionized water and in some instances change the temperature and observe and record the reaction. We will also investigate the different levels of prepared pH on varying samples of the potato extract and the Phenylthiourea and record the results. We will answer question such as what is the best temperature for optimum temperature reaction as well as the best pH level for the same reaction.
Amylase is an enzyme that is in human’s saliva as well as the pancreas. Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up a chemical reaction. They break down complex molecules into simple ones. In this case, amylase converts starches (complex molecule) into simple sugars. That is why foods like potatoes for example, may taste sweet to us, because they contain starch. The optimum pH for pancreatic amylase is the pH of 7. In the experiment I have used buffer solutions with the pHs of 2.8, 4 and 6.5. I have also used iodine and starch. Normally, iodine is orange-yellow, however when you add starch to it, the solution will turn blue-black.
The purpose of this investigation is to discover the effect of pH on the activity of catalase, an enzyme which plays the integral role of converting hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, and discover which pH level it will work at the most efficient rate (the optimum). The original hypothesis states that that the optimum would be at a pH is 7, due to the liver, where catalase usually resides, being neutral. The experiment consists of introducing the catalase to hydrogen peroxide, after exposure to certain solutions; hydrogen peroxide, water and hydrochloric acids, all containing the adjusted pH, and measuring the height of froth formed, an observable representation of the activity of the enzyme. The final data indicated that
The Effects of Enzyme Concentration on the Activity of Amylase To investigate the effect of Amylase concentration on its activity. the relative activity of Amylase is found by noting the time taken for the starch substrate to be broken down, that is, when it
Enzymes, proteins that act as catalysts, are the most important type of protein. Catalysts speed up chemical reactions and can go without being used up or changed  Without enzymes, the biochemical reactions that take place will react too slowly to keep up with the metabolic needs and the life functions of organisms. Catecholase is a reaction between oxygen and catechol . In the presence of oxygen, the removal of two hydrogen atoms oxidizes the compound catechol, as a result of the formation of water . Oxygen is reduced by the addition of two hydrogen atoms, which also forms water, after catechol is