Experts believe bipolar disorder is caused by an underlying problem with specific brain circuits and the balance of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters (WebMD). There are five brain chemicals noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin, and endorphin. Noradrenaline and serotonin are the most common chemicals linked to psychiatric mood disorders such as depression and bipolar (WebMD). Dopamine is linked to the pleasure system in the brain (WebMD). When a disruption happens to the dopamine system connects to psychosis and schizophrenia (WebMD). If there is too much dopamine in one place, it can cause psychosis. Dopamine motivates us (Deans, 2011). Dopamine is linked to everything, metabolism, evolution, and the brain (Dean, 2011). Serotonin is connected to many different body functions including sleep, wakefulness, eating and impulsivity (WebMD). Researchers believe that abnormal brain functioning of brain circuits that involve serotonin as a chemical messenger contributes to mood disorders (WebMD). Oxytocin is a hormone commonly associated with childbirth and breastfeeding. Oxytocin plays a critical role in social and emotional behavior. Oxytocin increases the susceptibility to feeling fearful and anxious during stressful events (NWU, 2013). The three most common psychotic disorders are schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dissociative identity disorder. They are also the most common disorders to be confused. Dissociative identity
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210). This creates difficulty with understanding the possible consequences or rewards of an action. According to Dolan, (2010), certain cues can be missed due to the deficits within the brain, creating a difficulty for that person to empathize. It has also been found that there are possible genetic links involving dopamine and serotonin, although these genes may be affected by the environment as well, which complicates the research (Rosenberg & Kosslyn, 2011).
PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS Psychotic disorders are a collection of disorders in which psychosis predominates the symptom complex. Psychosis is defined as a gross impairment in reality testing. Specific psychotic symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, ideas of reference, and disorders of thought Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV)
Mania may be related to high norepinephrine activity along with a low level of serotonin activity. Some researchers have also linked bipolar disorders to improper transport of ions back and forth between the outside and the inside of a neuron’s membrane, others have focused on deficiencies of key proteins and other chemicals within certain neurons, and still others have uncovered abnormalities in key brain structures. Genetic studies suggest that people may inherit a
The neurotransmitter dopamine is usually affected by addictive substances as well as implicated in disorders such as depression, schizophrenic psychosis, and bipolar. Because of the overlapping in substance abuse disorders and mental health illnesses, this suggests that brain changes in one will create changes in the other. Stress has also been identified as a risk factor for addiction and mental illnesses and is the biological link between these two disorders.
As the child grows up, bipolar disorder may affect the size, shape, and function of the brain. Experts believe bipolar disorder is partly caused when brain chemicals called neurotransmitters are unbalanced. Humans have three chemicals in their brain called noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine. Noradrenaline and serotonin have been known to link to psychiatric mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder. Dopamine has to do with the pleasure system of the brain. Disruption to the dopamine system is connected to psychosis and schizophrenia, two mental disorders characterized by distortions in reality and illogical thought patterns and behaviors.
Psychotic disorders can be described as a mental health disability in which a person experiences changes in thinking, perception, mood and behaviour which can severely disrupt their lives. Some of the main psychotic disorders include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, psychotic depression, schizo affective disorder and drug induced pychosis. Some common symptoms when a psychotic disorder is developing include depression, anxiety, irritability, suspiciousness, blunted or flat or inappropriate emotion, changes in appetite, changes in thinking, difficulties in concentration or attention, a sense of alteration to ones self or the outside world, odd ideas and unusual perceptual experiences. Some behavioural symptoms can include sleep disturbance, social isolation or withdrawal and/or reduced ability to carry out work and social roles.
Of the six most common neurotransmitters, dopamine is probably the one people know the most about. Dopamine is involved in controlling the reward and pleasure system in the brain. It allows us to recognize rewards and helps give us the ability to go after them. Learning, behavior, and cognition are also affected by dopamine levels. As with anything, if you have an imbalance, then bad things can happen. Parkinson’s disease can be caused by low dopamine amounts. People who have low dopamine levels can be addicted to substances easier.
“Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that’s affecting millions worldwide. It affects a patient’s thinking, emotions, judgment, behavior, relationships and ability to effectively communicate.” (James Rinehart, 2006). Paranoid Schizophrenia is the most common kind of schizophrenia out there. Those who suffer from paranoid schizophrenia, show to be normal with day to day activities, work, or relationships being either friends or a significant other. Although, they suffer from illusions of sound and hear things
Neurochemical factors (chemical changes) has also been involved in developing depression, there is good evidence that if neurotransmitters such as: serotonin, noradrenalin and dopamine is increased or decreased in large amounts it has a great effect on the synapses therefore if there is an imbalance of neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters are chemicals made by neurons and used by them to transmit signals to the other neurons or non-neuronal cells (e.g., skeletal muscle; myocardium, pineal glandular cells) that they innervate. The neurotransmitters produce their effects by being released into synapses when their neuron of origin fires (i.e., becomes depolarized) and then attaching to receptors in the membrane of the post-synaptic cells. This causes changes in the fluxes of particular ions across that membrane, making cells more likely to become depolarized, if the neurotransmitter happens to be excitatory, or less likely if it is inhibitory.
Over the years, experiments have produced evidence to suggest that dopamine plays a role in the development of Schizophrenia (Howes, McCutcheon, & Stone, 2015). Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is produced in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental regions of the brain. The belief that dopamine was involved in Schizophrenia arose after multiple studies performed with compounds produced an increase in extracellular concentrations of dopamine (Lieberman, Kane, & Alvir, 1987). The patients that were administered these compounds had similar symptoms to those observed from patients who were diagnosed with Schizophrenia (Lieberman et al., 1987).
(3) While successful drug therapies which act on neurotransmitters in the brain imply that depression is a neurobiological condition (4), the fact that such medications do not help about 20 percent of depression-sufferers seems to show that not all depression is due to such imbalances. Rather, depression is not caused by one single factor; it is most often caused by many different things. Genetics, biochemical factors, medicines and alcohol, developmental and other external factors, and relationships, marriage and children all have effect on the development of clinical depression. (5) The strongest hypotheses on the pathways to depression are in decreases in the activity of specific neurotransmitters, or the overactivity of certain hormonal systems. (3)
Schizophrenia has many criteria that is associated with it and it involves many different types of symptoms such as: First, Delusion which involves a disturbance in the content of thought, it occurs in more than 90% of patients at some time during their illness (Cutting,1995). They are numerous types of delusion which associates with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.
Causes of bipolar disorder are not clearly defined. There are possible genetic connections to the disorder. Probable occurrence of and excessive calcium buildup in the cells and also dopamine and other neurochemical transmitter seemed to be implicated in bipolar disorder.
The neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin is also thought to play a role in depression (Porth 1371). There are decreased levels of these neurotransmitters present in the pre and post synaptic cleft. Dopamine levels have been studied and increased levels of dopamine are found in mania and decreased levels in depression (Porth 1372).