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The Effects of Adolescent Substance Abuse Essay

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According to current statistics released by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, “In the United States in 2011, there were an estimated 25.1 million adolescents aged 12 to 17. In the past year, more than one quarter of adolescents drank alcohol, approximately one fifth used an illicit drug, and almost one eighth smoked cigarettes” ("A Day in the Life of American Adolescents," 2013, para. 1). Substance abuse is major problem amongst adolescents. Some are experimenting, but some adolescents may become dependent on a particular substance. If one becomes dependent on a substance as an adolescent it could be detrimental to their future health and success as an adult. Spear (2003) stated in an article titled Alcohol’s…show more content…
The whole brain is developing during this age. More importantly, the hippocampus is the region that develops memory/learning and the prefrontal cortex involves coordination and the process of emotions (Spear, 2003, figure 7). The severe interruptions in growth are dependent on the amount of consumption. (slide #5) I chose Erikson’s Development Model to formulate a nursing plan of care for an adolescent that suffers from alcohol abuse. Erikson’s theory consists of eight stages and places large emphasis on adolescent growth and development, which I find appropriate for this type of patient. The first five stages cover birth to age eighteen and the last three are adult stages of growth & development. The first stage is Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 18 months). In this stage, an infant is completely dependent on the primary caregiver. If cared for appropriately, the child will learn to trust. If the child’s needs are not met the child will be left with mistrust, scared, and fearful. The second stage is Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (18 months to age 3). This stage is a participating factor in self-esteem. During this stage a child begins exploring, walking around, touching, and tasting, anything/everything available. Criticism is sensitive to the child. A child in the second stage wants to be independent and do everything themselves. The caregiver must give some freedom to
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