The End of the Republic

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Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus joined forces to form a triple leadership called the First Triumvirate. The rulers of Rome’s states and colonies suspected that one man would soon emerge as the complete ruler. Antipater, ruler of Idumea, played one ruler against the other to seek favor. Crassus invaded Jerusalem and stole the temple treasure while war broke out between Pompey and Caesar. Antipater sided with Pompey until Pompey was defeated, and then switched his loyalty to Caesar. Caesar abolished the five districts and named Antipater procurator of all. Caesar became governor of the southern strip of Gaul, which Rome had annexed some sixty years earlier. He defeated the Celtic Gauls, conquering a huge area corresponding to modern France…show more content…
After new victories over former troops of Pompey in Asia Minor, North Africa, and Spain, he returned to Rome in triumph. Less than a year later, on the Ides of March, he lay stabbed to death on the floor of the Senate at the foot of Pompey’s statue, the victim of sixty senators who thought of themselves as heroic tyrannicides. Caesar’s friend, Anthony, defeated Caesar’s enemies in northern Greece. He then named Antipater’s sons, Herod and Phasael, as tetrarchs (rulers of fourths) of Galilee. (Packer) When the Parthians invaded Syria and Palestine to aid a Hasmonean attempt to regain power, Herod fled to his fortress at Masada on the western shore of the Dead Sea. His older brother, Phasael, was captured and committed suicide. Herod traveled to Rome, where the Roman Senate named him king of Judea. Anthony and his troops finally overpowered the Parthians and their Seleucid allies, and Anthony settled in Jerusalem. The strain of imperial expansion was so great that Rome took in no new territories for least fifty years after Caesar’s birth. Rome ruled most of Greece, Syria, Judea, and North Africa. Only one Greek-influenced nation remained intact. This was Egypt, ruled by Queen Cleopatra. Cleopatra became Julius Caesar’s friend after he defeated Pompey. When Caesar was murdered, Cleopatra tried to pick the winner in the struggle for
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