The Fatherhood Across Cultures : A Family Responsibility For Most Cultures

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Fatherhood Across Cultures I. Introduction The job of child rearing is widely regarded as a maternal responsibility for most cultures rooted in patriarchal systems (Hossain et al., 2007), and any prevalent studies on the role parents play in childcare tend to focus primarily on the relationship between mother and child. Analysis on the involvement of fathers in infant/child development had been somewhat lacking in the spectrum of cross-cultural psychology research until recently, with the rising percentage of, for instance, stay-at-home fathers, working mothers, and the notion that fathers play multiple roles within the household in terms of fatherhood and patriarchal duty. But as fatherhood is structured and contained by…show more content…
The traditional sense of father roles had been summarized by four assumptions (Parke & Sawin, 1976): 1. Fathers are uninterested in and uninvolved with newborn infants. 2. Fathers are less nurturant towards infants than mothers. 3. Fathers prefer non-caretaking roles and leave the caretaking up to the mother. 4. Fathers are less competent than mothers to care for newborn infants. From a biological standpoint, the role of the father is demarcated by the maternal feeding context, in which males cannot naturally participate. At the same time, viewed through a cultural context, not all cultures allocate minor, secondary roles to the father. For the Taira of Okinawa, the Nyansongo of Kenya, and the Ilocos of the Philippines, for instance, mothers and fathers share equal time and energy in caretaking, feeding, and transport of children (Parke & Sawin, 1976). It may be important to note that these three cultures, though ‘primitive,’ share similar father ideologies as that of developed countries such as Sweden, suggesting that while urbanization and industrialization may be factors, they are not defining features of an involved- father culture versus an uninvolved-father culture. Having said that, there is also evidence for the changing and shifting of father roles that stems from the advent of the Second Industrial Revolution. If so, a microanalysis should be conducted of the impact of
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