When it comes to culture, politics, and society, the five classical civilizations of Greece, Rome, Persia, India, and China were similar in ways, but also different which made each its own.
Let’s talk about Culture first. Religion and its importance is one that most classical civilizations had in common, but they each also had their own uniqueness. The Greece culture valued education, and placed emphasis on the importance of human effort. Celebration of human individual achievement and the ideal human form also was a part of their culture. Philosophy and science emphasized the use of logic. Greece’s religion was based on Polytheism, which was the belief in many Gods; with gods having very human characteristics. Great seafaring skills, centered on Aegean, and highly developed form of sculpture, literature, math, written language, and record keeping all made the culture of Greece interesting. Rome’s culture was based on art, literature, philosophy, science derivative from Greece. Superb engineering and architecture techniques; extensive road, sanitation systems; monumental architecture -buildings, aqueducts, bridges. Polytheism, derivative from Greeks, but religion was not particularly important to the average Roman; However, Christianity developed during the Empire period, but didn’t become dominant until very late.
In Persia the main religion was Zoroastrianism. Although that was the main religion, they didn't force the conquered countries to join their religions. They
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Despite all their similarities, The Greeks and Romans engaged in substantive culture differences. Their religions derived from a complex set of gods and goddesses, called deities, who were seen as regulating human life. Since the Romans embraced culture from the Greeks, many traditions were the same. However, the Greek and Roman culture, although similar, are very different and appealing. For instance, the Greeks did not acknowledge an all-powerful god; they believe that deities controlled everything that transpired on earth. In other words, the Greeks sought religious cults to explain the forces that shape the world (Bentley et al, 2008 p.143).
In examining the impact that the ancient world has had on modern Western civilization, the two ancient civilizations which are frequently understood as having had the greatest influence are Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. These two civilizations would eventually come to shape much of what would become the modern European culture, politics and society, and by extension, a vast proportion of global culture and society. In examining the trajectory of modern history in an era of globalization of Western ideas and modes of living, the importance of these civilizations in world history is extensive, contributing to cultural, political and social trends which may well dominate the globe in the future.
Two of the greatest civilizations of the ancient world were the civilizations of Greece and Rome. These two civilizations were especially significant from the time periods prior to the Roman Republic. These two civilizations both affected Europe and the Mediterranean regions including the rest of the world around them. Though the two civilizations differed in location, they also had many aspects that were very similar. One of these includes the government, with both showing the beginnings of the representative government. Another aspect between these civilizations was the military with similar strategies, tactics, and organizational similarities.
Classical China and Classical India were two great civilizations that are known for their influences on modern day China and India. Even so, they showed their own unique signs as they developed, with some similar qualities, and others that were not so comparable. Both Agricultural based civilizations had their own technological advancements, and China and India shared many similarities, but they had differences such as the hierarchy of social structure, religious influences, cultural practices, and the importance of trade in the economy.
In Roman religion, it was crucial “to serve the gods and ensure goodwill” (The Roman Republic). The English word “Religion” comes from the Latin word “Religio” (Overview of Religion). Latin was the ancient language of Rome, but for the Roman’s the translation meant something very different from what we understand it as today. To the Romans, “Religio” translated to “ the fear of gods” (Overview of Religion). Romans invested much of their time serving the gods, performing rituals and sacrifices in honor of them. On the contrary, Greek religion did not prefer to execute rituals as much as the Romans. Greeks were more lenient when honoring the gods. They did not have a theological dogma: belief or principle. There was no specific way in which the religion was executed. The Greeks many gods had different purposes and works they performed. They relied more on the verbal spread of the religion rather than having a written form. Although different, both religions had forms of praising and honoring their gods. Greek and Roman religion have many differences and similarities that impacted each group of people.
When talking about the culture in ancient Greece and Rome we are talking about two cultures that have had a major impact on today’s society. We are also talking about two cultures that have highly similar ways of life and or beliefs. One thing that both cultures had in common was that they believed in all the same gods. Although they did have different names for some gods, they all believed in what each god stood for and the myths that they had. For example, the Greek’s called one god Zeus while the Romans called him Jupiter. Another similarity between Greece and Rome was that they both practiced agriculture. Not only did both nations both practice agriculture but they even grew some of the same crops. A few example of crops that both the Romans and Greeks grew are barley, grapes, olives, wheat and so much more. Agriculture in Rome and Greece was essential to anybody was able to grow them. For
Throughout history, there have been many civilizations, empires, colonies, and tribes that have impacted the world. The civilizations of Greece, Rome, and China have done this, but what sets them apart from the others is their lasting significance and lasting impact they had on the world. For this reason, they are considered classical civilizations. To describe how Greece, Rome, and Han China are classical, there are three systems that are used; these are Economic, Social, and Political.
The Romans borrowed almost all of its mythology from Greece. The only thing the Romans changed was the names of the Greek gods. And the Greek gods lasted much longer Greece. That is another reason Greece was better than Rome.
The civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and China were all different but were also developed similar ways of doing things. The political, economic and intellectual outlooks of these ancient peoples say a lot about their ways of life. The religious views of Egypt and Mesopotamia were rather different.
Three new major religions developed and spread around the same time as the decline of the classical empires. These tree religions were Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam. As government declines, people began to strive for a more spiritual like and to seek joy. So, people turned to these religions. Buddhism spread through the bodhisattvas. As it spread and gained popularity, different versions of Buddhism formed in certain areas, like Mahayana Buddhism. Christianity spread through the teaching of monks and religious leaders. It became very popular because it appealed to all social classes. It offered a spiritual like, seeking the divine all-powerful force, which appealed to the wealthy. But, it also promoted the beauty of a simple life and spiritual equality, so the lower classes were fond of the new religion. Islam spread when the Arab armies fought to convert people to their religion. Islam had a huge impact in the civilizations in the Middle
In Roman religion it was crucial “to serve the gods and ensure goodwill” (The Roman Republic). The English word “Religion” comes from the Latin word “Religio” (Overview of Religion). Latin was the ancient language of Rome, but for the Roman’s the translation meant something very different from what we understand it as today. To the Romans, “Religio” translated to “ the fear of gods” (Overview of Religion). Romans invested much of their time serving the gods, performing rituals and sacrifices in honor of them. On the contrary Greek religion did not prefer to execute rituals as much as the Romans. Greeks were more lenient when honoring the gods. They did not have a theological dogma: a part of theology dealing with truths of faith concerning God and God's work. Their many gods had different purposes and works they performed. The Greeks relied more on the verbal spread of the religion rather than having a written form. Although different, both religions had forms of praising and honoring their gods. Greek and Roman religion have many differences and similarities that impacted each group of people.
Ancient Greek and Rome started out as small city-states they both grew into large empires. From the similar roles they agree on religion, both ancient civilizations approach quite successful. Ancient Greek and Roman admit being polytheistic, adoration of many gods and goddesses. Devotions to all the gods increase importance of recognition of their honorable deeds when they were alive. Donald L. Wasson said, “At the end of the day were concerned with the relationship between the gods and humans, differing in this regard from fairytales and folktales.” They thought that performing sacrifices and rituals would satisfy their gods they would gain protection from the bad vibes.
These emerging civilizations were much larger than the earlier ones of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley and Shang China – displaying more complex political, economic, cultural, and military organization. All civilizations traded with others and many conquered new territories. Classical civilizations include those such as Zhou and Han China, the Gupta Empire in India, and the Mediterranean civilizations of Greece and Rome.
When the Romans conquered Greece, not only did they discover that the Greeks had much to offer, but the Romans eventually adopted and built upon many of the Greek traditions. In terms of religion,
To begin with, how did the “Classical culture of Greece and Rome” influenced today’s western society. What we all know today as the “Western civilization”, according Rosemarie Brodeur used to be called the “Greco-Roman civilization” (lecture on August 23rd, 2017, to a History of Western Civilization class). During Antiquity, c. 800 B.C.E, there were two important powers: the Greeks and the Romans. At that time, a Greek way of life was expanding along the Mediterranean basin, they started colonizing territories around that area. What influenced most the community was of course the Greco-Roman culture.