The Four Different Types Of Organic Compounds

Good Essays
Organic Compounds There are four main classes of organic compounds: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Organic compounds are covalently bonded compounds that are primarily composed of carbon atoms (excluding oxides and carbonates). These four classes of organic compounds are vital to the life processes of all living things. One of the main organic compounds are carbohydrates. Some carbohydrates are a source of energy and others are used as structural materials for living things. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are in a ratio of one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom (1:2:1). The general formula of a carbohydrate is (CH2O)n. N is any whole number from three to eight. The functional group of a carbohydrate is hydroxyl. Carbohydrates also have subclasses, which are monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. A monosaccharide is a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate. The three examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose. Glucose is the main source of energy for cells. Fructose is the sweetest of the monosaccharides and is found in fruits, while galactose is found milk. Compounds like these sugars have the same chemical formula, but different structures, this is called isomers. A disaccharide is a sugar formed from two monosaccharides. For example, the monosaccharides fructose and glucose combining to form the disaccharide sucrose. A polysaccharide is one of
Get Access