The churches of London have been through a lot over the past few centuries and the show us every major phase of English history. The church had a great importance in the medieval society and transitioned now to the modern days. There are little events that changed the buildings inside and outside such as the laying of London Underground which damaged only one churches and there are big incidence such as the Great fire of London which completely destroyed or severely damaged over 80 churches.
Since there are so many churches I focused on just five different ones and their historic background. All of them are set in the City of London, which is the center of the much bigger city London and are still in use today.
Most of the Churches were …show more content…
A new way of building a church was with a cross-in-square plan, that is said to be a dutch influence, and a very untraditional nave and aisles with subsidiary chapels.
A lot of churches needed a general rebuilding in the 18th and 19th century such as St.Bartholomew the Great and All Hallows London Wall. These restoration were needed because of dissolution and decay. During the 19th century declining population and church attendance in the city intersected with growing appreciation of the buildings . Because of that Bishop Tait enforced the Union of Benefices Act of 1860 which lead to the demolition of 16 city churches.
Around that time St.Nicholas Cole Abbey was disturbed during the laying of the London Underground and St.Bride’s Fleet Street was struck by lightening and needed some restoration.
A much bigger impact had the damage that was caused by bombs during the second World War. St. Olave Hart Street for example was hit by four strikes and was restored in 1951-1954. Other Churches such as All Hallows London Wall and St.Bride’s Fleet Street had some serious war damage and St.Nicholas Cole Abbey was burnt out in 1941 and reconstructed in 1961-1962. Even though those churches needed some restoring architects of the 20th century tried to keep it as original as possible and focused on the old parts of the church without any modern influence.
Throughout these years the churches were adapted
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At the beginning of Henry VIII’s reign in 1509, there were over 800 monasteries in England, but by 1540 the majority of these ceased to exist and all that was left of most of them was a ruin. The monasteries were rich and powerful institutions which were loyal to the Pope. From 1536 to 1539, Henry VIII, and his advisor, Thomas Cromwell wanted to close down the monasteries. There were two real reasons why Henry VIII wanted to get rid of the monasteries, firstly because he wanted access to the wealth of the monastery and he wanted the treasures of the land owned by the Church. Secondly Henry VIII
For the early gothic, we can use the Notre-Dame in Paris and the Laon Cathedral as an example. Notre-Dame in Paris is the most famous of the Gothic cathedrals of the Middle Ages built in France. Notre-Dame and Laon are both designed shortly before 1160. The planning of Notre-Dame was described as “staggered and tired spaces extending” (1) The similarities between early Gothic in France and England is they both have large nave, two side aisle and two transepts. In early English cathedral, the transepts are usually extended out as an additional space on the sides.
England has a long history of periodic architecture and aside from recent war damage and the destruction during the Dissolution of the Monasteries Acts in the 16th century by Henry VIII, much of its historic legacy remains intact.
The medieval cathedral was physically integrated into the town. Houses crowded up to its very walls and "lean-to's" were built right against them. In the city, the tower cathedral, was the medieval forerunner of the skyscraper, but unlike its modern counterpart, it subsumed a number of functions. At one moment or another, therefore the medieval church could serve civic, communal, and commercial purposes (Branner, Robert, ed., Chartres Cathedral, W.W. Norton, New York, 1969, p. 69). However it was first and foremost a religious building. Although in modern times it served primary as a place of worship.
St. Paul's Cathedral in London is the seat of the Bishop of London and a major London landmark. It is located on Ludgate Hill in the financial district known as the City of London.
The Churches held town meetings, guild meetings, and town council sessions (Gies, 291). It also became the main provider for civic administration, education, and law. “Tithes, were a form of taxation, but it was used to pay for church management, public services, hospitals, and schooling” (Cavendish, 649). Every person would pay taxes and abide by the church’s laws (mnsu.edu). The church added new religious and ethical concept and gave people new moral responsibilities (Funk & Wagnall’s).
In Northern Europe, however, Protestant artists created simple images of people, places, and things. Architecture was not disregarded – when many medieval churches in London was burned down in 1666, Sir Christopher Wren, an English artist in the 17th century, was asked by the Protestants to rebuild them. Because he had to build the churches in between crowded commercial sites, he built the churches tall with
There are many historical buildings all over the world. Historical buildings are usually old and important. These buildings were built by hard working people that usually didn’t get paid a lot and worked 24/7. Most of these buildings been around for many years and have a meaning behind it
While comparatively the church was made up of few people, those few could easily define the rules of the greater society. They are a removed group at the top making decisions that will directly affect those below. Folb argues that “…dimensions of visibility and marked invisibility are keen indicators of the status hierarchy in a given society…” and I agree. The imagery and symbolism of St. Paul’s as a space and place allude to how greatly the church existed in the lives of the people. Only the king ranked higher than the church. England today is situated in a similar fashion. While the cathedral is not the largest structure in the city, newer buildings were designed to still give it a visible presence. Prime Minister David Cameron outright stating that England is a Christian nation proves how prevalent religion is in relation to government and people. Titles of Minister and Prime Minister are subtle, yet effective reminders of that
If you’ve ever wanted to see buildings straight out of a fairytale with twisting spires and amazingly intricate details, then the Stave Churches of Norway are for you. In the Middle Ages there were over a thousand Stave Churches but they were destroyed over time, now only twenty eight remain (Stave Church - See).
When Queen Mary came to the throne she made the Church of England become catholic, she killed any protestants who stood against the church. Queen Elizabeth however let the people believe what they want, but that started a naval battle, England / Spain had a naval battle. Spain used to have the best navy in the world! Until England crushed them in the naval battle. It’s obvious that the Church of England is different to the other churches in many ways.
St. Paul’s Cathedral, in London, England, was designed by architect Sir Christopher Wren. Approval of this most significant architectural project took six years just for the plan. Construction, which began in 1675, took thirty-five years until finally complete in 1710. It was built to replace a church that had been leveled by the Great Fire of 1666. St. Paul's is the largest cathedral in England, and said to be Wren's masterpiece. He brought a range of new forms, and architectural combination into English architecture. Masonry, brick, timber, and cut stone were used to form the structure of the cathedral. St. Paul’s Cathedral has been one of the main socially significant buildings in London. Cathedrals all around, have always played a
All over the world, people still come to admire the beauty of European cathedrals. Many of the cathedrals are fragile due to age, neglect, pollution, and insufficient funds available to restore these historical and magnificent buildings. Nevertheless, visitors to these architectural masterpieces are fascinated by the design and structure of these churches. The cathedral builders using their own ingenuity, expertise, and limited resources were able to defy the laws of gravity and time. (Icher 30)