Student: Gretel Herrera- Martinez
Panther ID: 3339147
" HIV in Miami- Dade County"
In this document, we are going to do a brief exposition about the HIV and report the statistical analysis of this virus in Miami-Dade County. First of all, we need to define what is “The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)”. HIV is a virus and it is considered a lentivirus (family of Retroviridae). This virus causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV was discovered and considered the agent of the emerging AIDS epidemic by the team of the scientific Luc Montagnier in France in 1983. The virus is spherical, equipped with a jacket and with a capsid protein. Virus’s genome is a single-stranded RNA strand DNA and must be copied temporarily to multiply and integrate into the genome of the cell it infects. Protein antigens of the outer casing are coupled specifically with membrane proteins of the infectable cells, especially CD4 T lymphocytes.
A person can be infected with HIV through the exchange of liquid fluids, specifically blood, semen and vaginal secretions with a person infected with the virus. An example of the transmission of the virus is by having sex with a person of the opposing sex or the same sex or sharing needles to inject person. Initially, HIV was considered an illness for homosexual people only, nowadays this virus affect all kind of population and race. Another hand for the case of pregnant women infected with HIV, they can also pass the virus to their babies
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
HIV is a human immunodeficiency virus for which the virus is responsible for HIV infections. The virus attacks the immune system making it impossible for the immune system to fight off infections and diseases. HIV is a lentil retrovirus with a genetic complexity not seen previously among any kind of retrovirus. It operates in an inconspicuous nature comprising several parts: HIV destroys immunologically important white blood cells called T-helper cells (CD4+.) It goes inside a host cell DNA, where it can remain stays for extended periods and it inactively infects cells of monocyte lineage that can move throughout the body. It also has an affinity to nerve cells making it neurotropic and its antigenic biological properties are heterogeneous. However, HIV is distinct from acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS, which is the full syndrome that consequently damages the immune system. AIDS is a stage when an
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that attacks the human immune system, your body’s means of defense. The virus attacks specific viral defense cells, known as CD4+. As the disease spreads and attacks more CD4+ cells, your body no longer maintains its’ ability to fight of infections and diseases which leads to the death of the host. The final stage of HIV is known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). During this stage of the virus, the host gets infected and sick easily and can no longer fight off infections.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are lentiviruses (a subgroup of retroviruses) that infect CD4 cells (commonly known as T-cells), macrophages and dendritic cells. The Virus can be transmitted through the rectum, the vagina, the mouth, and the opening of the penis. Only certain fluids contain the virus. They are blood, semen, pre-seminal fluids, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids and breast milk. The HIV virus infects a T-cell, multiplies and eventually the cell explodes. When that happens on a massive scale, your immunity is compromised. That makes it possible for infections, such as the common cold and pneumonia, to thrive. That is usually in the end stages of the disease.
Societies have been devastated by a number of epidemiological outbreaks, but few diseases have been as antagonistic as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The global transmission of this disease has been perpetuated by the ease of long distance travel and immigration (Magis-Rodriguez, 2004; Xu et al., 2014). Throughout the past 35 years the course of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as patterns of immigration, have changed immensely. Given the increase in both HIV and immigration, specifically in North Carolina (NC), this dissertation will focus mostly on changes, concerns, and strengths pertaining to the screening and treatment for HIV among Latino immigrants in NC. The
HIV infects CD4 + T cells. The viral particles of HIV keep their genetic information stored as double-stranded RNA. They use a reverse transcriptase that converts their genome into double-stranded DNA (Edina, Misawa, Kanemura, Koyanagi, 2013). During this process the virus can mutate quickly because many errors occur in the HIV genome. “The DNA is inserted into the host cell genome by integrases which use LTR (long terminal repeat) sequences on the viral genome to integrate with the host DNA” (Ebina, Misawa, Kanemura, Koyanagi, 2013). This results in a provirus that can continuously produce new viruses that infect other immune cells.
Another way to get HIV is sharing sex toys with someone who is infected which is classified as behaviors that can be the cause of this problem. Another way to get HIV is perinatal transmission. Perinatal transmission is when the mother passes the infection to her child during the childbirth, pregnancy and even breastfeeding. The mother passing this virus is considered one of the genetic factors to this problem. The final way of transmitting HIV is through blood transfusion. Among drug users, sharing and reusing syringes contaminated with HIV-infected blood is really dangerous. Even when receiving tattoos and piercings, you are at risk for HIV depending on the new or used needles.
Only a few diseases in modern history have been so devastating and impose a direct global public health threat to be referred to as “The modern plague” [1, 2]. The Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is considered to be the causative agent of one of the deadliest pandemics our generation have witnessed collecting over 30 million lives worldwide since the 1980s , with 3.4 million children under the age of 15 living with the virus as of 2012 . In 1983, HIV has been linked to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by Robert Gallo and his collaborators in a series of four papers published in Science magazine [5, 6]. Since then, research has been targeting
The virus which is responsible for the disease of AIDS or the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is named as HIV or the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV is one of the members of viruses called the retrovirus. Explain this later These viruses are capable of duplicating the RNA into DNA.The virus has two exact copies of single-stranded RNA as the basic genome in the very center of the organism. The genome is surrounded by a membrane that is made of membrane-bound proteins and lipids. One of the membrane-bound proteins is called the T-cells which help the virus becoming physically attached. When it became attached, the virus that is brought inside by the T-cell could result for the internal core to become exposed and damaged. Then the enzyme attached to the RNA, starts to make a base-pair single-strand copy of the RNA into DNA. The single strand of DNA is also duplicated by the same enzyme to form double-stranded DNA. This DNA enters one of the 46 chromosomes within our cells and used it as pattern to produce new virus particles. These new virus particles can be released from the infected cell and infect the adjacent cells.) HIV can hide for a very long period of time in the cells of the body and attacks the main part of the immune system – the T-cells or the CD4 cells. HIV cannot enter unbroken skin. HIV can be transmitted through direct exchange of body fluids. Sexual intercourse is the most common form of HIV transmission. Blood to blood contact, such as sharing needles for
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an immune system disorder that can be contracted through sexual activity as well as other types of contact. (Healthy Living, pg. 79) If left untreated this virus can turn into AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). AIDS is the final stage of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). (aids.gov) AIDS is an incurable progressive disease that causes gradual destruction of CD4 T cells by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (Diseases, pg. 431) A healthy adult has a CD4 T cell count of 1,000 or more but a person suffering from HIV could have a count lower than 200. CD4 T cells are crucial to the immune system; without them the immune system would not have the ability to fight off infections.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects the human wellbeing by attacking the body’s immune system which is the natural defense system in the human body to resist infections. When the immune system is being compromised, the body becomes less capable of fighting diseases, allowing the body to become more susceptible to infections. Different from other viruses that the body can get rid of, HIV will remain in the body for life (Wright and Carnes, 2016). HIV works by attacking the CD4, which assists the immune system to resist infections. If not treated the virus decreases the number of T-cells in the body, thus making the person’s immune system highly prone to infections or infection-related cancers (Wright and Carnes, 2016). After the body’s immunity is actively depleted, therefore allowing opportunistic infections to invade the body, the patient will be approaching the final stage of HIV, also known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), quickly (Wright and Carnes, 2016).
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an obligate intracellular parasite found exclusively in humans. It is responsible for weakening the immune system and leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The first case of AIDS was diagnosed in the U.S. in 1981, and in 1984 it was first proven that HIV caused AIDS. There is currently a pandemic of HIV/AIDS, with the highest incidence rate in Sub-Saharan Africa and the lowest rates in Western Europe and North America, due to better healthcare.
Human immunodeficiency virus, also referred to as HIV, is a virus that weakens the body’s immune system which restricts it from fighting infectious diseases (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2016). HIV can be transmitted through body fluids such as blood, semen, breast milk, or sexual contact (CDC, 2016). There are three stages as HIV progresses; the first stage takes place within the first month it is acquired. These early symptoms are often confused with a cold as they include fatigue, headache, rash, and sore throat (CDC, 2016). If HIV is left untreated, it becomes more severe and advances to the last stage known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). As the disease progresses, patients being experiencing
HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. A member of a group of viruses called retroviruses, HIV infects human cells and uses the energy and nutrients provided by those cells to grow and reproduce. AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a disease in which the body's immune system breaks down and is unable to fight off certain infections, known as "opportunistic infections," and other illnesses that take advantage of a weakened immune system. When a person is infected with HIV, the virus enters the body and lives and multiplies primarily in the white blood cells. These are the immune cells that normally protect us from disease.
HIV, or the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, is a virus which damages and kills cells of the immune system. It attacks the T-cells, key cells of the immune system, and uses them to make copies of itself. After being infected with the virus it progressively interferes and eventually destroys the immune system's ability to fight the anti-genes. HIV may develop into the syndrome AIDS, the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV is an STD - a sexually transmitted disease - and therefore most commonly it is spread through sexual contact, and the virus mainly enters the body through the penis, mouth, lining of the vagina or vulva during sexual activity. HIV can also be spread through sharing syringes or needles with someone who is infected with the
Human immuno deficiency virus, (HIV) belongs to the genus Lentivirinae, a Retroviridae, which is a family of enveloped retro viruses. It was first described in 1983, when a case of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was reported, two years earlier. The disease was characterised by immunocompromised patients that were more susceptible to opportunistic pathogens, along with a dramatic decrease in the CD4 T cell count. It has since been discovered that there are two types of HIV, HIV-1, and HIV-2. Each one endemic in different parts of the world, however HIV-1 is more virulent, and is responsible for the most cases of AIDS worldwide. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27126/