Creatine is an organic molecule that is found in the human body as well as other vertebrate animal’s tissue (“Creatine”). It is considered an amino acid. Creatine is made naturally in the liver or can be taken as a supplement (“Creatine”). Creatine has shown that when taken as a supplement it has many benefits to the human body.
Structure and Properties: The formula for creatine is; C4H9N3O2 (“Creatine”). The structure is: By looking at the structure of creatine and the bonds present, we can understand a lot of the properties. The melting point of creatine is 255 degrees Celsius (“Creatine”). This is a relatively high boiling point for a molecule. The high boiling point is due to the hydrogen bonds present between the oxygen and hydrogen and the nitrogen and hydrogen. Hydrogen bonds are very strong and not easily broken. Hydrogen bonds increase strength with numbers, this causes the melting point to be higher in a molecule with more than one area where hydrogen bonding is present. Hydrogen bonding can occur with the oxygen and the nitrogen in the molecule.
The shapes are determined by the bonds and the lone pairs on the atom. The bonds and lone pairs cause the molecule to bend into different shapes dependent on the number of bonds and lone pairs. They bend into a specific shape with different angle degrees.
Chirality refers to the “mirror image” of a molecule (“Chirality and Stereoisomers”). To identify a
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The supplement creatine is used for faster recovery for muscles after short periods of exercise. The theory is an athlete on creatine can exhibit more explosive bursts of energy allowing for longer weight workouts, more sprints, etc. Increased muscle mass and bulk are two of the ideas behind creatine, but they only occur as long as people work out while taking the substance. It doesn’t create
Creatine has many drug like uses and people who are oblivious to creatine would think it is a steroid unless told differently. Creatine can be used as a way of cheating and can be abused to a very dangerous level therefore making it a risk for the athlete. Although creatine is a natural substance, supplementing creatine can boost your creatine level by over 500 times. Creatine can be found in red meat but to get 5 grams of creatine which is the recommended dosage you would have to eat 5kg of raw red
Creatine phosphate has been heavily experimented upon to show that it is an important effector towards muscle activity. When creatine phosphate is present in a solution containing muscle fibers without the presence of ATP, it serves as the energy supplier due to the fact that it absorbs bound adenine nucleotide, which is firmly linked to the contractile elements on muscle fibers (Bozler, 1953). Even in low concentrations this nucleotide can be considered an energy transfer mechanism, for it takes full advantage of the creatine phosphates energy supply, thus acting as a substrate for the enzymatic activity of the contractile elements of a muscle group. Consumption of this nucleotide leads to an increase in the strength of contraction. Creatine phosphate also speeds up rate of relaxation of muscles, for it induces the relaxing effect of ATP (Bozler, 1953). Thus, this research suggests that creatine phosphate is directly linked to instigate muscle contractibility.
What is Creatine? Creatine is a nutrient that is found in many foods. It is most highly concentrated in lean red meat. A half-pound of red meat contains about two grams of Creatine. Every human body also
The transformation of creatine into energy occurs within the first few seconds of exertion. Creatine supplements are artificially made creatine that can be taken by athletes as ergogens, substances that can be used by athletes to enhance performance. Artificially made creatine is available as powder, capsules, candy, and gum. The goal of creatine supplementation is to increase the energy in the muscles so that athletes can improve their strength, speed, and endurance.
Creatine (Cr) is a popular dietary supplement used by athletes to increase sports performance, muscle mass, and strength. Creatine was first discovered in “1835, when a French scientist reported finding this constituent of meat” (Demant & Rhodes, 1999). This organic compound is manufactured endogenously by the liver and kidneys “from the amino acids glycine, arginine and methionine” for energy stipulation during muscular contraction. (Arazi, Rahmaninia, Hoseini, & Asadi, 2011). Creatine is either converted into free form Cr or phosphorylated form as known as creatine phosphate (CP). The endogenous production and exogenous consumption of Cr yields about 1 gram a day for the average person (Cooper, Naclerio, Allfrove , & Jimenez, 2012). In
From a very early age sports are introduced upon both young boys and girls. Although it begins with sportsmanship and teamwork, it begins to evolve into new objectives when these young athletes enter high school. In fact, high school sports are vastly different. Your mind is trained to obliterate the opponent and win at all costs. This mentality can often lead many young athletes to turn to supplements to assist in muscle building. The most common supplement in use currently is Creatine. While athletic departments and sports nutrition stores claim that it is harmless, why do so many high school athletes end up with severe muscular and pulmonary damage? The answer has yet to be clearly
Periodized heavy resistance training was performed for 12 wk. Creatine or placebo capsules were consumed 25 grams per day for 1 wk followed by a maintenance dose of 5 grams per day for the remainder of the training. RESULTS: After 12 wk, significant increases in body mass and fat-free mass were greater in creatine than placebo subjects. After 12 wks, increases in bench press and squat were greater in creatine subjects. Compared with placebo subjects, creatine subjects demonstrated significantly greater increases in muscle total, creatine concentrations were unchanged in placebo subjects. Muscle creatine was significantly elevated after 1 wk in creatine subjects (22%), and values remained significantly greater than placebo subjects after 12 wk. Average volume lifted in the bench press during training was significantly greater in creatine subjects during weeks 5-8. No negative side effects to the supplementation were reported. CONCLUSION: Creatine supplementation enhanced fat-free mass, physical performance, and muscle morphology in response to heavy resistance training, presumably mediated via higher quality training sessions. This study was conducted by Richard B. Kreider of the Exercise & Sport Nutrition Laboratory Department of Human Movement Sciences and Education The University of Memphis. The one concern I have with this study is it seemed to leave out the limitations that Creatine may have on some body
Next, Creatine is a supplement made of three different amino acids glycine, arginine, and methionine. Creatine can be produced by the body and found in high protein meats. When creatine enters the body it bonds with a phosphate molecule to form creatine phosphate. When macronutrients are consumed they go through a process called oxidation to become adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is molecule that stores energy. When a task is performed energy is given off to perform the task and a phosphate is lost. Once a phosphate is lost ATP becomes ATD (adenosine diphosphate). ATD is useless to the body and can not be used for energy unless it is formed back into ATP. Creatine gives its phosphate to ATD to make up for the missing phosphate, reforming ATP. Creatine provides more energy to increase performances and strength while training. Shannon Clark, whom holds a degree in exercise science and sport performance said “Creatine allows you to keep pushing hard in the gym at a time when you would previously had to decrease the load or stop entirely, so it helps in building muscle faster” (Clark). Taking a creatine supplement provides more energy needed to build strength.
However; there is no evidence that creatine has any neuroprotective aspects. Continuing to look into clinical supplementation of creatine, it may be beneficial with conditions relating to muscle dysfunction.
The criteria for articles chosen was that each piece of research needed to involved the intake of CR, and being physically or athletically tested pre and post ingestion of CR with no other supplementation, steroid, or health related drugs involved. All research articles were double blind with placebo groups to prevent the effects of bias and placebo effects. All research was done within the previous 16 years and a balance of gender was aimed for in order to be unbiased but resources were mainly male orientated. Time period was not contained as a variety of short and long term supplementation is good to compare the different effects of sports performance over different durations of supplementation. Age of subjects in experiment weren’t