The increasing demand for fish in the food industry has resulted in extensive overfishing in wild fisheries. This has caused widespread habitat destruction, overfishing, and an overall loss of biodiversity with both freshwater and marine ecosystems. To compensate for the issues surrounding industrial overfishing of wild populations, farmed fisheries in sheltered coastal waters, rivers, ponds and tanks were introduced. The innovation of genetically modified (GM) farmed-raised fish which possess traits such as larger mass, faster growth, and increased resistance to diseases may alleviate the industrial pressure from the food industry for consumer relevant species. However, developing a transgenic GM fish does present a risk to wild …show more content…
Research trials on aquaculture species are both time-consuming and costly. The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model organism is quickly gaining a reliable reputation in aquaculture research as it resolves these disadvantages. The sequenced genome of zebrafish also offers a huge advantage by allowing the use of technologies for molecular analysis such as genotyping. Zebrafish has proven itself to be a representative system in understandings biological characteristics of a larger group of organisms. For these reasons, we use zebrafish in this study to explore a transgenic approach for biological confinement. 1.2. Bioconfinement The introduction of GMOs in the food industry has provided some relief on the population demand for food. However, this comes with the concern of possible release or escape of transgenic species into the wild and the effects that this would have on natural environment. The two primary methods of biological confinement are physical and genetic confinement. Physical confinement include the use of barriers to prevent escape within an environment. In aquaculture, this can involve the use of the conventional net pen systems or land-based facilities. However, this confinement method has inherent risks which cannot ensure restraint on the proliferation of GMO’s in the event of escape into the wild. Genetic control can include methods such as dependence factors only available through supplementation within an
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Genetic modified organisms, or GMOs, are living organisms that, through the genetic engineering process, have been altered to withstand certain chemicals and increase the nutritional value of the product. In fact, the majority of the foods found at the grocery store are genetically altered. Genetic modification is becoming increasingly popular on farms throughout the United States and moving into other parts of the world due to their increasing yield capabilities and pest and weed control. However, this has been, and continues to be, an extremely controversial topic of discussion in the world of agriculture and biotechnology, as well as health food critics, because of potential environmental and health risks.
Genetically modified crops are an incredibly important issue that everyone should be aware of since it is something we are exposed to at a daily basis. Genetically modified crops also known as GM crops or Biotech crops has been one of the most heated debates of issues within our society. The debate about the safety, concerns and disadvantages of GM crops have raged since the mid 1990 's but this is due to the lack of knowledge of the general public. Many people are unaware of what the GM crops actually are and what they offer. Genetically modified crops are plants that are used in the agriculture and have been modified to initiate a new trait to plants that does not happen naturally in the species. These plants are modified using genetic engineering techniques to enhance desired traits. GM crops are made when genes of commercial interest are transferred from one organism to another.() There are many methods used for the production of GM crops but the two primary used for plant insertion are gene guns and agrobacterium tumefaciens. There are also three types of modifications which are transgenic, cisgenic, and subgenic plants. However, there are a number of issues that surround this controversial topic such as environmental, health, and economic concerns. Even though there are some worrying facts about GM crops people don 't realize the advantages or the ways it has helped humans as well as animals. There are many reasons why GM crops are proven
Genetically modified food’s, or GMOs, goal is to feed the world's malnourished and undernourished population. Exploring the positive side to GMOs paints a wondrous picture for our planet’s future, although careful steps must be taken to ensure that destruction of our ecosystems do not occur. When GMOs were first introduced into the consumer market they claimed that they would help eliminate the world’s food crisis by providing plants that produced more and were resistant to elemental impacts like droughts and bacterial contaminants, however, production isn’t the only cause for the world’s food crisis. Which is a cause for concern because the population on the earth is growing and our land and ways of agriculture will not be enough to feed
With numerous developments plaguing agricultural production, the implementation of Genetically Modified Organisms, commonly referred to as GMOs, is best suited to be used in food manufacturing. It is estimated that by the year 2050, global food production must increase by seventy percent. However with current practices in place and the limited expansion of farmland due to urbanization, such production rates are nearly impossible to achieve. The use of Genetically Modified Organisms seems to be among the only feasible options to rapidly increase food production and thus aid in this crisis which plagues even though most developed countries, such as the United States. Specifically in the United States, the use of Genetically Modified Organism
There is a current discussion on whether we should genetically modify the growth hormone gene that the Chinook salmon is naturally born with. AquAdvantage is currently working on getting their genetically engineered transgenic salmon FDA approved. Their scientists have been able to make the common Atlantic salmon be able to grow to over twice its natural size by inserting the growth hormone gene from the Chinook salmon into the Atlantic salmon, however, there are wider implications to take into consideration before making these transgenic salmon mainstream.
A genetically modified organism, GMO, has been altered by genetic engineering techniques. GMOs are widely used by scientists in many different ways to include the production of food and in research.8 Zebrafish genetically modified to be a fluorescent bright red, green and orange have been available for purchase as pets in 49 states in the United States since 2003.8 However, these patented GloFish are banned in California. The California Fish and Game Commission decided the fish were the result of a “trivial use for a powerful technology.”7 The Commission’s belief that the fish should not have been created led to a law making the GloFish illegal. Originally GloFish were developed by scientists in Singapore to be living pollution sensors as they would only glow when in the presence of pollutants.7 The Commission’s ban on GloFish highlights the controversy over genetically modified organisms and how public opinion can be swayed by the beliefs of others whether those beliefs are based on science or not. This paper will focus first on what genetic modification means and then will look at the pros and cons of genetically modified foods. Finally, the author’s opinion of the issue of GMO food will conclude the paper.
Founded in 2001, Yorktown Technologies, Inc. is a company that specializes in the ornamental fish industry. The globalization of the ornamental fish industry happened over a half a century ago. Hundreds of freshwater and saltwater fish can be purchased as pets in virtually any industrialized nation in the world (Broy, 2011). Yorktown Technologies commercializes a genetically modified fish called GloFish, which appear to glow in the dark (Mueller, 2010). GloFish are zebrafish that have been genetically modified with fluorescent colors. They are the first genetically modified animals to become publicly available as pets
The dramatic increase of people on planet earth over the span of 5 decades has raised many questions about food production and how much is needed to sustain the rising population. Furthermore, the increased productivity of animals, specifically the growth and processing of animals is now needed more than ever in order to support the upcoming years. Moreover, the means to combat this problem is the use of genetically modified animals. Genetically modified animals can contribute to the increase of animal productivity as there have been many examples of animals which have greatly accelerated growth periods, which decreases the amount of time it takes in which an animal can be sold as a food product. Additionally this also cuts the amount of food they consume by a significant margin, further increasing their efficiency. One example of this is the AquAdvantage salmon, which has a growth hormone gene from Pacific Chinook salmon and a switch on gene from ocean pout. The AquAdvantage fish grows at twice the rate of normal Atlantic salmon due to its ability to grow all year round, and at an increased rate. Through these advantages alone, anyone can see the incredible value and importance of genetically modified animals have over normal
Zebrafish are an ideal organism to work with, they are easily stored and the cost value isn’t very high. The Zebrafsh that were preserved and used for trials in this research took place in the setting of the University of Sydney Animal Ethics Committee. “The fish were kept at a 14 h light/8 h dark cycle at 28.5°C “ (Rinwitz) There were two microliter of purified BAC DNA, which were mixed with Transpose mRNA. The transposes mRNA was shot into the zebrafish fertilized eggs. The following day, the zebrafish eggs were examined under the “fluorescent stereomicroscope” (Rinwitz). A fairly large mount off embryos survived to become adults. “Two to three positive founder fish were identified for each modified BAC and the F1 offspring was
While genetic management of foods can be traced throughout history, the modern phenomena of GMOs and transgenic plants have come to light in just the last few decades. In today’s modern society, the science of biotechnology and the process of genetic modification are developing throughout the planet. As of 2004, 8.25 million farmers in 17 countries were using genetically modified crops. Today, approximately two- thirds of all food offered in supermarkets has been genetically modified. However, the subject of GMO’s is one of great controversy. Although this modern invention does have some positive results on the food industry it also has brought some negative consequences along with it.
Genetically modified salmon is the first biotechnology animal that will be entering our foods market soon. This fish is an Atlantic salmon constructed to grow two times as fast as the normal farm raised salmon. The company AquaBounty has been engineering the Atlantic salmon and has been trying to get approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration for about two decades to sell in the market. It has the same minerals, fatty acids and nutrients just like the regular salmon that we’ve been eating. The modified salmon won’t be produced in America but instead will be produced in Canada, then shipped to Panama where they will be harvested and chances of the fish escaping to reproduce will be an unlikely event. They are confident
The uncertainty of how genetically engineered fish will affect human health and impact the health of our oceans and wild salmon populations is disturbing.
When speaking about genetically modified or genetically engineered organisms, an important distinction must be made. This new breed of technology does not use traditional means of gene
With an ever-growing population and the problems of world hunger, there has been a high demand for an increased food supply and a better food supply. Technology has been called upon to meet this challenge. The advent of genetically engineered foods, sometimes called transgenic crops or genetically modified foods, is not a new concept, but the controversy over it is. Can these "frankenfoods" be harmful to humans? What are their effects on the environment? The following paper will focus on such questions as well as providing a better understanding of what genetically modified foods are and how they should be regulated.