The Materials, Properties, and Theory of Superconductivity Essay

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The purpose of this paper is to examine the materials, properties, and theory of superconductivity, a quantum phenomenon that occurs when a material is brought below a critical temperature and will conduct electricity without any resistance, the nearest model in nature to perpetual motion. According to Ecks (1990), Once current is applied to a superconducting material the current will continue in a closed lope without ever losing intensity. (Ecks, 1990) Superconductive materials can greatly vary in mechanics and materials. They are separated into Type 1 and Type 2 superconductors. All superconductors display the unique ability to repel magnetic fields, known as the Meissner effect. According to Shachtman (2000), Superconductivity was…show more content…
In superconductive materials a small fraction of electrons undergo a process known as Cooper pairing. At very low temperatures the passing of electrons through a crystal lattice causes the lattice to warp inwardly toward the electrons, creating sound packets termed phonons. These phonons, according to the theory, produce a channel of positive charge. (Ecks, 1990) According to Goldman (2000), Electrons that normally would repel one another, pair up in these channels of positive charge. The individual electrons cease to have meaning and occupy a single stable quantum state, known as a bose-einstein condensate. (Goldman, 2000)
According to Ecks (1990), Among most chemical elements, Cooper pairing is accomplished through vibrations at the molecular level within the crystal lattice structures of the atoms. Copper, silver, gold, and other non superconductive metals have tightly packed lattice structures that constrain the vibrations required for Cooper pairing. (Ecks, 1990) Theoretically these materials can superconduct, but the transitions to superconductivity must be at such low temperatures and require such great purity of material that they have not been proven conclusively. (Nave, 2000) Electrical resistance in metals arises because electrons traveling through the solid are scattered due to deviations from

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