The Problem Of Chronic Hepatitis C

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Main problem: Chronic Hepatitis C
Hepatitis is a systemic disease primarily involving the liver, the term is used to construe inflammation of the liver. One of the main forms of Hepatitis is Hepatitis C; an RNA virus and uses liver cells to create copies of itself, killing those cells in the process. Prior to the identification of the infection in 1989 it was labelled “non-A, non-B” hepatitis (1). HCV blood-borne virus that predominantly infects the cells of the liver and advances to liver inflammation. It ultimately results in cirrhosis and primary liver cell cancer (2). It affects an estimated 130-150 million people globally with around 350,000 to 500,000 people dying each year from hepatitis C-related liver diseases. (3)

Pathogenesis
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With haemodialysis, health care work and prenatal is the lowest at 5%. Primarily the route of transmission in the developed world is intravenous drug use (IDU), whereas in the developing world the main causes are blood transfusions and unsafe medical procedures [11]

Figure 5[10] displays the prevalence of HCV in 1999, There is an indication that countries which are less economically developed have a higher prevalence compared to countries which are more economically developed[11].

Once infected with the virus there are two phases which the person would go through, the first phase is referred to as acute infection Figure 1[6] shows progression of the Hepatitis C infection stages. Acute infection is when the individual is newly infected; during this stage up to 25% of people infected with HCV clear the virus from their system during the first few months. Although they don 't have the virus active in their body they will still test positive for HCV antibodies because they have had the virus at some point in their life. Approximately 75% of people with acute HCV cannot clear the virus from their bodies, this results in the progression of the disease into phase 2 chronic infection. Figure 2[6] shows a visual representation of the stages of a healthy liver going through fibrosis and cirrhosis.

During the second phase of the virus, it will damage the liver tissue gradually, causing scar tissue called fibrosis to be assembled.
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