Bioterrorism is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, toxins or other harmful agents to cause illness or death in people, livestock, or crops. These agents are typically found in nature, but could be mutated or altered to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicines, or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment. Bacillus anthracis is one of the most popular agents to be used in a bioterrorism attack. Anthrax could be used in many forms, for example, it can be placed into letters and mailed, much like the 2001 anthrax attack, anthrax can be released into the air where the spores can be easily blown by the wind and inhaled or can be carried around on objects such as people’s clothes to which it has …show more content…
Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria known as Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax can be transmitted via airborne methods such as bioterrorism, where it is used as a weapon and released into the air to cause infection, or by breathing in anthrax spores from infected animal products such as wool. Humans can also become infected by direct contact, from handling infected animal products, or by vehicular transmission from eating undercooked meat from infected animals causing gastrointestinal anthrax. Anthrax is not passed from one person to another. (Arthur Schoenstadt, 2017).
The virulence factors of anthrax are encoded on two large pathogenicity-related plasmids. The virulence factors of anthrax are the capsule and endotoxin production (Fasanella, 2013). The capsule of the bacterium aids in attachment to the host and prevents phagocytosis by the host immune system. Once the anthrax spores are lodged into the skin or lungs, the bacteria rapidly begin growth, producing a deadly tripartite endotoxin which affects cell metabolism. This toxin is composed of three proteins which are the Protective Antigen (PA), the Edema Factor (EF) and the Lethal Factor
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In a world that is known of many backgrounds, cultures, religions, and most important different views on the way of life. We face the biggest challenge in civilization and that’s diversity, because of the fact all over the world we disagree more than we can agree on what is taking place in this world many places result in violence to solve problems. Most of the violence that take place are within the nation. People tend to fight again things they feel doesn’t apply to them or would affect their way of living. However, a major problem global is that when nations can’t agree internationally on ceasing something that another feel is not lawful that’s when things become more complex. And the act of terrorism against
Chemical terrorism is the use of natural or synthetic substances such as mustard gas to kill a group of civilians (Freedmen 1). There is also such thing as bioterrorism. Bioterrorism is the use of a biological weapon against a civilian population such as smallpox and fungus (Hoyel 1). Chemical and biological terrorism is very dangerous because it intends to kill a lot of people at a time. Terrorists can get their hands on chemicals but it is much easier for them to get biologics (biological agents) because they are harder to detect and are cheaper to make.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax can occur in three different forms; skin, inhalation and intestinal. It is spread by contact with the bacteria spores, which are from infectious animal products. Usually contact occurs through breathing, eating or cut and does not spread between people.
Bioterrorism can easily target citizens by poisoning food and water supplies. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration a.k.a. OSHA stated that there’s over 250 different foodborne diseases and illnesses, and are often mislabeled as food poisoning. These diseases can be potentially fatal to those inflicted. In the article “A Discussion of Findings and Their Possible Implications from a Workshop on Bioterrorism Threat Assessment and Risk Management”, Bruce Hope states that it’s possible to analyze the agricultural and food industries by making fake scenarios of potential threats. This analysis of America’s system can allow for professionals to better secure food supplies and ensure that bioterrorism is less likely of impacting the population. Defense measures can make these buildings invulnerable, or nearly so (Zilinskas, 906). Another method of defense against bioterrorism is vaccination. According to Rebecca Katz in “Public Health Preparedness: The Best Defense Against Biological Weapons” she argues that vaccination is a plausible method of defense against bioterrorism if necessary. She also states “[vaccines] are part of a preattack defense and a postattack containment” (Katz, 177). These vaccinations can aid people in case of smallpox and anthrax, both of which are viable threats to biosecurity. The article also states that while more research is necessary to improve the currently available vaccines, it’s a necessary component of preparing for bioterrorism. Katz states “In order to avoid chaos during an event, development and dissemination prior to an attack of vaccine priority and distribution plans is essential. These plans should incorporate the best methods for controlling the spread of disease, saving the most lives, and ensuring the utility of
Bioterrorism is directly focused on the livestock and crops, which are valuable sources of food. The agroterrorism attack in the U.S. has started an economic warfare, which can turn fatal to most Americans. Economic warfare has calculated of being damaging to the
A death by a biological agent is not a quick one; in most instances it is a slow and very painful death. A fear such a death would definitely incite panic, making it much more difficult for rescue crews and medical personnel to respond, causing the problem to grow out of control (Eitzen 445) With nuclear terrorism, most deaths are immediate due to the sheer force of the explosion of a bomb. This may be startling to think about but death would be swift with possibly very little suffering if any at all. Another possible effect of bioterrorism is the possible lowering of one’s immune system due to lack of sleep caused by fear or by sickness itself, therefore making the disease much harder to fight off. Nuclear terrorism is archaic and unlikely yet it is still in the public eye so often we no longer realize it, yet Bioterrorism is hardly ever mentioned and it much more likely a dirty bomb going off in the middle of a city is not as likely as a weaponized strain of ebola being realeased into the air in this day and age. The inexpensiveness of production, easy distribution and mental toll Bioterrorism takes; it is a very real and very potent threat to our society as a whole. And it is high time it was recognized as
Biological weapons cannot, without explosive components, destroy structures. Nuclear weapons can level entire parts of a city. Nuclear weapons however cannot target specific groups of people within the impact zone whereas biological agents can be deployed in an enclosed space, reducing the number of deaths but targeting only a specific group. This may be important when considering the terrorists constituents. Do they want targeted attacks against only government or military personnel? Would they rather see a high death toll? Terrorist organizations are not typically simply causing death, they are advancing a political or religious ideal that may have limitations that shy away from indiscriminant
Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that forms spores and can survive long periods of time in extreme conditions. Once it enters into a host, the spores germinate and reproduce bacteria that contaminate the body through the blood stream. To suppress the host’s immune system, the bacteria produces Protective Antigen (PA), Lethal Factor (LF), and Edema Factor (EF).  These toxins target macrophages, which ingest invading microorganisms. The assault of the target cell is then performed by three non-toxic proteins. The Lethal Factor or the Edema Factor teams up with the Protective Agent, since the Protective Agent transports the Lethal Factor or Edema Factor into the cell. Inside the cell, the Lethal Factor converts ATP to cyclic AMP, while the Edema Factor disables a family of proteins known as the MAPKK. This shuts down the host’s immune system and eventually leads to its death. 
Of all the possible bioethical nightmares, imaginable ethical concerns within bioterror is the most frightening but the least talked about for the very same reason. Most complications aren't known by the public and we don’t often think about them because we aren’t the scientists required to handle those types of scenarios. All citizens want is proper guidance when something catastrophic happens. On the other hand, researchers, scientists, public officials in medicine, government and military get paid the big bucks to sit down and enforce strategy through a potential full-blown bioterroristic pandemic. Koehler (2004) states “by temporary panels leading to delayed discussions, restricted scope, and inconsistent policy positions between panels.
Acute disease anthrax is caused by the bacterium bacillus anthracis. In most cases this disease can be extremely lethal and for the most part it affects only animals the most common way of contraction is through contact or consumption of meat that has been infected by this contagious disease. There are vaccines that can protect against anthrax available. And in many cases the disease can respond to antibiotic treatment with success. Similar to other members of the genus bacillus b anthracis it is known to form dormant endospores that have the ability to survive in conditions that may be harsh for long periods of time. When an endospore is inhaled or ingested or comes into contact with apiece of skin on the given subject the spore
The three categories of biological agents are category A, B, and C. the biological agents under the categories “pose the greatest threats to national security” (). That is due to their ease of transmission, even for the high rate of death they can cause. An example of category A is anthrax, while in category, B is ricin, and category C has influenza. Biological agents enter the body when they are inhaled, eaten, or absorbed, and they can also quickly multiply and passed from one person to another. With anthrax, the way it can be prevented is by vaccines and by taking antibiotics. There are two types of antibiotics that offer protection against anthrax. Now ways to prevent ricin is by moving away from the area that ricin was released,
The environmental pathogen I chose from the California Code of Regulations, Title 17 is anthrax. The anthrax genus is Bacillus and the species is anthracis, it is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacillus. The methods of identification for anthrax are three different types the first one is a skin lesion that has evolved over 2 to 6 days from a papule, through a vesicular stage to a depressed black eschar, with considerable swelling around the lesion. The second one is a respiratory illness of abrupt onset followed by the development of dyspnoea progressing to hypoxia, with X-ray evidence of mediastinal widening. The third identification of anthrax is abdominal distress that is followed by fever and signs of septicaemia which is rare and 90% of cases are cutaneous anthrax. The incubation period for anthrax for cutaneous is typically 1 day, for inhalational is within 7 days although incubation periods up to 60 days are possible, and gastrointestinal is usually for 3 to 7 days. The reservoir for anthrax is soil, infected animals such as sheep’s, goat’s horses, and pigs. The mode of transmission for anthrax is when humans handle or consume products from infected animals, from being bitten by flies who have fed or infected animals, by inhaling anthrax spores or through cuts and abrasions that become infected with contaminated soil. The symptoms of anthrax are high fever, chills, or night sweats. Flu-like symptoms and sore throat followed by difficulty in swallowing, enlarged
Anthrax, an infectious disease that is extremely deadly, is caused by a Gram-positive, spore forming bacterium known as Bacillus anthracis. Herbivores are mainly infected with this bacterium, which eventually infects humans when they are exposed to contaminated animal products. Anthrax enters the human body via different routes; cutaneous, gastrointestinal and inhalation.
The bacteria I got assigned is Bacillus Anthracis. It’s the bacteria that causes Anthrax. They used Bacillus Anthracis to make the Anthrax Vaccine. There are three different strains of Anthrax they are Cutaneous,Inhalation,and Gastrointestinal. They also used Bacillus Anthracis to prove diseases are caused by bacteria.The spores are found in soil,dead animals,and fences. They can remain dominant for many years. Anthrax is found in farming areas of Central America,South America,and Central Asia. You can get Cutaneous Anthrax by bumping up against something and getting Bacillus Anthracis in a cut. You get Inhalation Anthrax by breathing in Air that has spores of Anthrax in it. You get Gastrointestinal Anthrax by eating raw or undercooked food