Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of feedlot cattle, causing an estimated global economic loss in excess of $3 billion per year. BRD is a multifactorial disease caused by various bacterial and viral pathogens, contributing to significant morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. Stress due shipping, poor health condition, crowding, and mixing of calves comprises their immune system making them prone to BRD pathogens. Use of antibiotic is important part of prevention and control strategies in feedlot cattle. Histophilus somni is one of the bacterial pathogens commonly associated with BRD. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of 58 H. somni isolates collected from 2012 to 2015 from clinical cases of BRD will be compared to 31 isolates from 1980’s to investigate if resistance has changed since that time. Genes responsible for resistance in H. somni will be analyzed and genetic relatedness of old and new isolates will be determined. Copper and zinc use in feed is found to be responsible for antibiotic resistance in other bacteria. We are suspecting similar phenomenon in H. somni that will be determined by looking at co-location of Cu, Zn and tetracycline resistance genes. Lack of information about prevalence of antibiotic resistance in H. somni makes it difficult to judge its contribution to treatment failures. Results of this study can be used in making decisions for effective use of antibiotics in feedlot facilities and mitigate risk of
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Many people take breathing for granted, some never give it a second thought until a problem presents itself. Respiratory diseases affect millions of Americans as well as people from all over the world. Anyone can suffer from these disorders to include men, women, and children, with conditions ranging from mild, moderate, to chronic in nature. This paper will focus on one of the many respiratory disease called mycobacterium tuberculosis; more commonly referred to as TB.
In the past century there has been a substantial change in the way human beings raise and keep animals meant for food. While in the past there were great numbers of widely spaced small individual farms, now there are relatively few, but extremely large industrialized farms. And as the numbers of animals kept and slaughtered for human consumption increases, these industrialized farms, known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations or CAFO's, are having more and more of an impact on the environment and people around them. The concentration of animals causes a major problem with the waste products they produce, as well as the gases, chemicals, and other types of byproducts. And the increased use of antibiotics in the animals is beginning to have a profound effect on the health of not only the environment but the communities that exist around these industrialized farms. CAFO's, and their secondary industries, are also a large consumer of oil, gasoline, and other fuels which can have an indirect, but devastating effect on the environment. Luckily there are some who have come to recognize the problems, and potential future problems, involved in this type of animal farming and have begun to inform the public to the dangers these farms pose. And in response to this information, the public is beginning to force changes in the way these CAFO's operate and the impact they have on the environment and
Presently, speculations have risen about the amount of antibiotics used in the livestock industry and the desire to consume antibiotic-free meats. What is not understood, however, is the USDA has been monitoring the amount of antimicrobial residue in meats for several years. If unsafe levels are detected the meat is not allowed to be sold for human consumption. Yet, fast food chains such as Subway and Chipotle are claiming to go completely antibiotic free within the next decade. The practicality of this becoming a reality is slim due to the need to control, treat, and prevent diseases. To truly understand the importance of the antibiotic usage in cattle it must first be understood what antibiotics are and the reasons they are used. Additionally, the use of vaccinations should be taken into account for the
Respiratory problems have been a thing in canada as well in most countries. But Canada is becoming a high risk for influenza. To go more into depth about respiratory diseases it includes other breathing problems such as asthma,tuberculosis,bronchiolitis,emphysema,cystic fibrosis and pneumonia. In the past decade the number of people in Canada haven’t contracted the disease. Studies have shown that in canada that men have a higher chance to have COPD other that women,but women are more known to report it.
The reason I chose to use my show cattle as the main part of my video is because they are really important to me and have probably had biggest impact on my life as a whole. For the last 10 years I have been showing cattle and it has been a huge part of my life ever since. Showing cattle has taught me more about life and responsibility then anything else in my life ever has. Throughout the years of showing my cattle I have made many friends and been lots of places. The reason I chose the pictures that I did for my show cattle part of the video is because they show the way that I have grown and learned more over the last few years about showing cattle in specific. Having pictures of multiple years of calves that I have showed, explain how my showing abilities have improved since I started showing cattle. I mixed the different cattle that I have showed so that my video would show different perspectives of my show calves and the different breeds that I have showed. These pictures help me look back at the different shows I have been too with different calves helps me understand what I have improved on. Each calf that I have had, has been different in many ways, and each one has made me go out of my comfort zone in different ways and helped me learn new things such as, showing a different breed that I had no experience in, breaking calves to lead, new techniques for showing and prep, and figuring out new feed rations for my calves.
I am a hardworking, motivated student that seeks to learn more about the beef cattle industry. Although I grew up showing horses, I became fascinated with the beef industry during my freshman year of college after competing in the UF Little International Livestock Show. I was tasked with breaking a beef heifer within a month’s time and showing in an intercollegiate show. My experiences in class and networking with various beef industry representatives through my involvement with Gator Collegiate Cattlewomen, has only solidified my desire to work in such a vital industry. I believe interning at the NCBA Convention would allow me to cultivate an increased knowledge of the beef industry, make valuable connections with industry leaders, while also gaining important skills in beef advocacy. As an Agricultural and Natural Resource Law Minor, I am also in a special position to learn more about government regulations affecting the beef industry and the actions needed to improve policy and thus, benefit the beef industry as a whole. Overall, I believe I am qualified prospect and I know I can prove myself to be a valuable asset to NCBA. I am a fast learner with a diverse skill set, well versed in social media, very personable, and an effective problem solver that can handle any task assigned to me.
Without the presence of bovine dung beetles in Australia, the dung from imported cattle has cluttered pastures and fashioned vermin. Research has questioned if the imbalance between bovine dung beetles and dung were to be stabilized, then the pastures would be used to their best ability and the growth of insect pests would decrease. Due to intensive research on the effects of the imported Afro-Asian Onthophagus gazella in Hawaii, the O. gazella dung beetle was introduced to Australia after undergoing thorough sterile conditions to destroy potentially harmful mites and other transferrable germs. The results of the importation were the elimination of a bovine dung pad in about 24 hours, the fertilization and richness of the soil, and the elimination
Background. Haemophilus influenzae, a major pathogen causing respiratory tract infections and meningitis, is becoming increasingly resistant to small spectrum penicillins. Investigating the reasons for this resistance is challenging. Methods. The sequences of the ftsI gene, encoding the transpeptidase domain of penicillin binding protein (PBP) 3, were determined for 44 strains of Haemophilus influenzae with reduced susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics. The strains, isolated from children, were analysed for genetic relationship by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Results. The sequences have different mutations and were classified into three groups (I (n = 3), II (n = 36, including H. influenzae ATCC 49247), and III (n=5)) on the basis of
“The antibiotics these animals consume with their corn at this very moment are selecting, in their gut and whatever else in the environment they end up, for new strains of resistant bacteria that will someday infect us and withstand the drugs we depend on to treat that infection (Pollan. 81.)” Similarly, we will possess those same microbes from the animals we eat. There are roughly 5 diseases that can be attributed to antibiotic resistance due to factory farming; e. coli H-7, MRSA, Campylobacter/Salmonella, Mad Cow disease and Obesity. E. coli strains are normal in cows, but this particular strain thrives in feedlot cattle. Due to high grain diet the cows are fed, allows the deadly strain to withstand acidic environments in other words, resist acidity in our stomachs. This strain of E.coli can cause severe kidney damage. Children and elderly people are more likely to have severe symptoms and die. According to an Oxford Journal article MRSA infections leads to more deaths than HIV/ AIDS every year(Stryjewski 19.) MRSA is very common to pass in hospitals, and it’s antibiotic resistance makes it very difficult to treat. Campylobacter and Salmonella can be killed through proper cooking. Although, both are becoming more resistant to antibiotics. Campylobacter can be found on more than half the chicken being sold in stores. Mad Cow disease occurs when cows are fed other pieces of butchered cow, sheep or goat. Causing an infectious neurodegenerative disease in the animals which get passed to us. Luckily this is a disease more rare than the others I have discussed. Roughly 1 in 3 Americans is considered obese, calling obesity a disease is debatable. The country with the largest food industry also has the largest obesity rate. Arguably it doesn’t meet the requirements for a disease, but the American Heart Association and the American
We have a very short pilot period for Citrix exception request via workflow back in July 2015, but due to miss requirement it was shut down shortly after. We only received 1 or 2 requests before we found out it does not meet business need. All citrix exception related issues should revert back to the normal process since
1. The mother of Charles Goins, age 4 years, calls you and says that the entire family has had colds the past two weeks and everyone seems better except Charles. She states that Charles appears to have a cough, especially at night. She does not think that Charles has fever, but she is concerned because Charles does not “look right”.
Bovine Tuberculosis is a notified disease caused by mycobacterium bovis, in which all organisms are susceptible, including humans and cattle (Boden, E, 2005). Between January and June 2014, the number of herds now officially not Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) free has come to 6,312 with the number of cattle being slaughtered reaching 17,063. The impact of a herd breakdown due to bTB is devastating, costing the farmers £14,000 and the government £20,000 (DEFRA, October 2014). It is important to prevent TB due to its high pathogenicity, so a number of control strategies are in place nationally and internationally with the intent to eradicate TB in Great Britain and other countries.
This paper will look into various aspects of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD). It will look at the prevalence of CRD in both Australia and China and the factors affecting both countries. It will also look into the prevention and treatment strategies for chronic respiratory diseases available in Australia and the health professionals involved in these strategies. Finally, it will look into one of the impacts in has on the community. Chronic respiratory diseases vary widely in severity and have many contributing factors. Although there is no cure, various self-management systems ensure patients experiencing CRD have some quality of life.
Bacteria can be found on numerous locations of the human body, while some are beneficial to human health others are not. Upper respiratory tract infections for example can be cause by pathogenic bacteria. Left untreated, respiratory infections can be harmful or even fatal in some cases. Therefore, identifying the cause of the infection is paramount. Knowing the target would allow the correct treatment methods to be utilized, such as the use of an effective antibiotic. The purpose of the experiment was to identify a bacteria of interest that has presumably caused an upper respiratory tract infection. Furthermore, the goal was to use as few test as possible to produce quick yet accurate results which could be vital in a real world situation
Every October, thousands of cows are brought down from summer alpine pastures high up in the Berchtesgaden National Park mountains. Local farmers, in this German region, claim that spending the summer months in the mountains, makes the cattle healthier and happier. As I was hiking on these beautiful slopes in November, I did not see any cows. However, Berchtesgaden mountain herbs, clear spring waters and stunning scenery had a similar effect on me as on Bavarian