Probosciger aterrimus, better known as the “palm cockatoo”, is the largest bird species of the parakeet (Psittaciformes) family (Taylor 2000). This highly threatened cockatoo species can be found dwelling in many tropical and woodland regions, including those of lowland New Guinea and the savanna habitat of Cape York Peninsula, Australia (Murphy et al. 2003), and can be identified by its long, plumaged body, curled erectile crest, and naked cheek patches. Of particular interest, and perhaps the most distinctive of this cockatoo’s traits, is the long, strong hooked beak. As with many bird species, the palm cockatoo’s bill has adapted to its specific dietary preferences and feeding strategies; in particular, the shock absorbing ability of the large, powerful bill allows the granivore-frugivore (grain or seed-eating – fruit-eating, respectively) (Koutsos et al. 2001) parakeet to scavenge for hard nuts that are otherwise inaccessible to other parakeet species. Further supporting the granivorous diet-accommodating beak morphology of the palm cockatoo is a study conducted by Munshi-South and Wilkinson (2006) that conclusively correlated the evolution of longer lifespans in parrots with the adoption of seed-based diets. If parrot species do in fact achieve longer lifespans by adopting granivorous diets, natural selection’s favoring of traits maximizing the adoption of a granivorous diet in the palm cockatoo should be relatively equally distributed amongst all members of the
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Evolutionary adaptation has been widely recognized as shaping life forms into definite, distinguishable groups with significant traits. Some animals have evolved into odd ways, that they could be removed from their parent group. For instance, the vegetarian eagle is related to the Golden Eagle, however its distinctive feature is that it attacks palm trees instead of animals. This eagle has a special adapted digestive system, which separates itself from the rest of the eagles. You may be wondering how it can live without a typical meaty diet that all other eagles experience. This is because the bill of a vegetarian eagle opens nuts, and obtains the fats inside to compensate for a typical meaty diet. This bird is an excellent interpretation of
The Avis Papyrus, more commonly known as the Carmel Origami Bird, native to the sparsely spaced Cool Creek Islands, was subject to a study of its evolutionary success. These birds must travel long distances to get between the islands they inhabit in order to survive long enough to produce offspring; meaning that being able to fly long distances aids in their fitness. The development of these beneficial characteristics are possible because of something called natural selection. Natural selection is the gradual process over the course of generations where a species gradually develops and excludes traits and characteristics (Fukuyama, 2004). This is to help increase reproductive success of an organism and increase the animals fitness. The experiment looked at how natural selection led to their evolution and it’s raw data shows evidence that the Origami Birds have met evolutionary success due to natural selection.
Brood parasitism is a unique behavior performed by some species that tricks another host species into raising its young. This is a fairly common behavior among the Cuculidae family of which 53 of the 136 species perform brood parasitism. My question and what I hope to review within this paper is, what has caused brood parasitism, what has shaped it, and what are the adaptive values of Cuckoo brood parasitism? Within Cuckoo’s, this strange behavior has ultimately been shaped through environmental pressures and has become advantageous. Ecological changes forced Cuckoo’s to change migrational patterns, habitat, range size, and foraging, which lead to brood parasitism. Once brood parasitism arose, a coevolutionary arms race began between the Cuckoo’s and hosts. Due to parasitic egg rejections, Cuckoo eggs that closely resembled host eggs were selected for, leading to higher success rates of the behavior. This gives Cuckoo’s many advantageous’, as there is no longer a need for investing time and energy into raising their young. Brood parasitism also gives Cuckoo’s the advantage of exploiting diverse breeding habitats; reduced diet restraints, and foraging. Ultimately this behavior provides many benefits to Cuckoos and allows them successfully raise young while providing no parental care.
One of its most important characteristics is its beak. The finch adapted to have a thin, long beak to probe through moss, bark and leaves in search of food (Wildscreen Arkive, N.D.). These finches have the thinnest beak out of the 13 finches; which aids them to find small insects. The Green Warbler finch are mostly found in humid highland forest where their primary food source is found. These adaptations made them more fit to survive on available food. Over the years the finch’s beak has evolved as the bird developed different taste for insects. Another famous adaptation is how they camouflage in their environment. The Green Warbler is restricted to the forest and is greener in body colouration, while the Gray Warbler is found in shrubby, dry thickets and is greyer and duller looking (Certhidea olivacea, 2010). Their coloration helps them camouflage in their own environments, and to hide from predators. Recent studies have found that there are in fact two separate species of the Warbler Finch, the Green Warbler Finch and the Grey Warbler Finch, but are considered as a single species (Wildscreen Arkive, N.D.). The Green Warbler finch mainly occupies larger, inner islands, while the Grey Warbler finch inhabits the smaller, outer islands (Green Warbler Finch,
The adaptability and evolutionary history of Raptors is remarkable and a learning opportunity for humans.
The Pharomachrus mocinno has evolved many behavioural and physical traits as a result of adaptation to the current environment and lifestyle it leads, however this proposal will focus on the unusual plume tail length of the male P. mocinno. This particular species habitat requires nests as high as 22 meters in rotting trees (Seigfried et al. 2010). Therefore, the function of the feathers would typically be assumed to enhance flight, as that would make sense as a useful function in this scenario due to the high elevation. Surprisingly, however, the long length of the plume tail actually decreases the speed of the male bird due to the drag force of air (Norberg 1995) and requires it to drop backward off the branches before being able to fly forward normally (LaBastille et al. 1972). With such issues with the long plume tails, would sexual selection really be in this traits’ favour? In a study done on the widowbird such was the case; males with longer plumes were mated the most (Andersson 1982). However, the widowbird is completely black (including its tail), while in the case of Pharomachrus mocinno it is a very colourful bird. Previous studies also have shown, that the bright reflective colours on the male’s bodies help in attracting females (LaBastille et al. 1972).
A major threat to the swift parrot population is the loss of habitat through habitat clearing. This habitat loss is caused specifically by the loss and alteration of foraging and nesting habitat through forestry activities, including firewood harvesting, and residential, industrial and agricultural development.The clearing of foraging and nesting habitat has been extensive for the past few years, which has overall reduced the available habitat for nesting and foraging for the Swift Parrot.
h. fannini restricted to Haida Gwaii and southeastern Alaska are a unique subspecies from A. h. fannini found on the mainland and western Washington due to morphological differences. This situation is common amongst several other species on Haida Gwaii, As this recovery strategy is aiming to justify the presumed differences between A. h. fannini on Haida Gwaii and on the coastal mainland, this information may also be applicable to other species on the archipelago who also have a phenotypically described endemic species from Haida Gwaii , such as the Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus), Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator), and the Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) (Topp & Winker,
The Malleefowl is a heavily-built Australian bird that lives on the ground. Relatively, it is about the size of a chicken. Its scientific name, Leipoa ocellata,which belongs to the Megapode family. The Malleefowl is a heavy-bodied, ground-feeding, egg-incubating vertebrae. The two certain characteristics that make the Malleefowl different from most birds is that they construct large nesting mounds and that the parents do not care for their chicks after they are born. Being the only living species of the genus Leipoa, it is a bird of unique qualities, although the Giant Malleefowl (which is now extinct) was a close relative.
Due to the continuous population declining in orange-bellied parrots, the conservation plans such as captive breeding was initiated in 1985, several wild birds were caught and kept captive breeding since then. But such effort does not prevent the extinction trend for orange-bellied parrots, until 2006, the wild individuals of orange-bellied parrots sank to a critical stage, the Federal Government immediately granted 3.2 million dollars for conservation of orange-bellied parrots. Since 2006, the conservation plan has been an ongoing process, it is unlikely to fully reintroduce orange-bellied parrots in the wild in the soon future.
The ivory-charged woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) is one of the biggest woodpeckers on the planet, at approximately 20 inches (51 cm) long and 30 inches (76 cm) in wingspan. It is local to the virgin woodlands of the Southeastern Joined States (alongside a different subspecies local to Cuba). In light of environment decimation and, to a lesser degree, chasing, its numbers have dwindled to the point where whether any remain is indeterminate, however reports have shown it has been seen again in the present century. No woodlands today can keep up an ivory-charged woodpecker populace.
In the case of ring species, natural selection and sexual selection each play a role in the divergence of ring species. Selective pressures allowed one phenotype to survive better than others in a certain area; sexual selection could cause divergence because organisms choose mates based on phenotypes. In the case of salamanders, natural selection affected divergence because organisms with certain coloration survived better in coastal or inland environments. In warblers, sexual selection and natural selection seem to play a part in the divergence of the ring species, as forest density and migration distance is variable and affects survival of the species. Molecular and morphological evidence can be used to support multiple species by showing
Probably the most obvious are the large and colorful macaws, parrots and cockatoos. Macaws are the largest parrots and they are native to Central andSouth America, Mexico and formerly Caribbean. There are many different species of macaws and some can be up to a meter long. A distinguishing feature of macaws is the leathery path on the face, which has no feathers. Other classics are the famous, long-beaked toucans. Toucans are also found in South and Central America, southern Mexico and Carribean. They are large birds with distinctive, massive beaks. There are about 40 species of them. Hummingbirds are among the world's smallest birds. There are over 300 species of them, and they are all native to Southern, Central and Northern America. They eat nectar from flowers and can hover in the same place in the air and even fly backwards. Most species live in Southern and Central America. Other remarkable birds are the beautiful pink Flamingos. There are six species of them in the world. The most common - Greater Flamingo - is found in southern Europe, parts of Africa, and southern and south west Asia. Lesser Flamingo is found in Africa and India. The other four are found in South and Central America, Caribbean and Galapagos Islands.
The purpose of this laboratory simulation is to determine the effects of different factors on the evolution in isolated populations of seed-eating finches. The simulation takes place on hypothetical islands each with a population of finches. The primary finch physical characteristic affected by factors is the bill size which can change from smaller to larger. Larger bills are an advantage with hard seeds while smaller bills are an advantage for eating soft seeds. The islands can vary by physical size and precipitation levels. Larger islands can support a larger population. Higher precipitation levels support plants with soft seeds while corresponding lower supports plants with harder seeds. The number of eggs laid or "clutch size" can also be held static within the simulation.